ROMAN REPUBLIC
Download
1 / 34

UNIT 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

ROMAN REPUBLIC. ROMAN EMPIRE. UNIT 11. FALL OF ROMAN EMPIRE. ACCORDING TO LEGEND, ROME WAS FOUNDED IN 753 BC IN THE CENTRE OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA. THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON THE ITALIAN PENINSULA DURING THIS PERIOD CAME FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' UNIT 11' - iniko


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

ROMAN REPUBLIC

ROMAN EMPIRE

UNIT 11

FALL OF ROMAN EMPIRE


ACCORDING TO LEGEND, ROME WAS FOUNDED IN 753 BC IN THE CENTRE OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA. THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON THE ITALIAN PENINSULA DURING THIS PERIOD CAME FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS


ACCORDING TO LEGEND, ROMULUS AND REMUS WERE THE TWIN SONS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.


ANCIENT ROME TIMELINE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.


THE ORIGINS OF ROME OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON THE ITALIAN PENINSULA DURING THIS PERIOD CAME FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS

THE ETRUSCANS LIVED IN THE NORTH AND CENTRE OF ITALY

THE LATINS LIVED IN CENTRAL ITALY, WHERE THEY FOUNDED ROME

THE GREEKS ESTABLISHED COLONIES IN THE SOUTH, WHICH WAS CALLED MAEGNA GREECE


H OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

THE PATRICIANS WERE LANDOWNERS AND HELD ALL THE IMPORTANT POLITICAL POSITIONS

THE PLEBEIANS WERE THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION. THEY WERE FREE BUT IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC THEY DID NOT HAVE THE SAME POLITICAL RIGHTS AS PATRICIANS

SENATORS AND RULERS OF THE GOVERNMENT

PATRICIANS

PLEBEIANS

SLAVES HAD NO RIGHTS. FREED SLAVES, CALLED LIBERTI, DID NOT BECAME CITIZENS

LIBERTI

SLAVES

NON CITIZENS

CITIZENS


THE MONARCHY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

753 BC-509 BC

EARLY ROME WAS A MONARCHY. THERE WERE FOUR LATIN KINGS, WHO WERE LATER FOLLOWED BY THREE ETRUSCAN KINGS. THE KINGS HELD POLITICAL, MILITARY AND RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY.

THE ROMANS DEPOSED THE LAST ETRUSCAN KING IN 509 BC AND ESTABLISHED A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: THE REPUBLIC


ROMAN REPUBLIC OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

509 BC – 27 BC

CENSOR

CONTROLLED THE PROMOTION OF PATRICIANS TO STATE

CONSUL

LED THE ARMY AND CALLED THE ASSEMBLY

PRAETOR

SUPERVISED JUSTICE

MAGISTRATES

HAD POWER OVER POLITICS, JUSTICE AND TAXATION

ELECTED

COMITIA

ELECTED MAGISTRATES AND APPROVED LAWS

SENATE

THE MOST IMPORTANT INSTITUTION IN THE REPUBLIC. IT COULD DECLARE WAR

TRIBUNE OF THE PLEBEIANS

DEFENDED THE RIGHTS OF THE PLEBEIANS

FORMED

ENTERED GOVERNMENT PATRICIANS

PLEBEIANSEXCLUDED FROM THE SENATE


509 BC – 27 BC OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

ROMAN REPUBLIC

THE EXPANSION OF ROME


THE EXPANSION OF ROME OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

ROME UNIFIED THE ITALIAN PENINSULA (5TH-3TH CENTURIES BC)

ROME CONQUERED MANY NEW TERRITORIES UNDER THE REPUBLIC

IN THE THREE PUNIC WARS ROME FOUGHT AGAINST CARTHAGE FOR CONTROL OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN TAKING ITS ISLANDS

THE MAIN STAGES OF THIS TERRITORIAL EXPANSION WERE THE FOLLOWING

IN THE MACEDONIAN WARS THE ROMAN GAINED THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN

FROM THE THE 2ND CENTURY BC, THE ROMANS EXPANDED IN THE WEST, WHERE THEY GAINED CONTROL OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA AND GAUL

MARE NOSTRUM

AFTER ALL THESE CONQUESTS, ROMA CONTROLLED THE ENTIRE MEDITERRANEAN, WHICH WAS CALLED


THE ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

AS A RESULT OF ITS TERRITORIAL EXPANSION, ROME HAD A GREATER POPULATION AND IT INCREASED WEALTH AND TRADE

1

THREE GENERALS: JULIUS CAESAR, POMPEY AND CRASSUS RULED AS A TRIUMVIRATE BEFORE JULIUS CAESAR BECAME A DICTATOR

BUT THE WARS ALSO CAUSED SOCIAL CONFLICTS, BECAUSE FARMERS HAD TO LEAVE THEIR FARMS TO SERVE IN ARMY

2

AFTER CAESAR ASSASINATION, THREE MORE GENERALS, OCTAVIAN, MARK ANTHONY AND LEPIDUS, CREATED A SECOND TRIUMVIRATE

AS THE REPUBLIC WEAKENED, ARMY GENERALS ACQUIRED THE REAL POWER

3

BUT OCTAVIAN DEFEATED THE OTHERS AND WAS DECLARED EMPEROR AGUSTUS IN 27 BC


IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

1

MANY INSTITUTIONS, SUCH AS THE SENATE, CONTINUED TO EXIST UNDER THE EMPIRE

THE EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED INTO PROVINCES. THESE WERE RULED BY GOVERNORS

HOWEVER, THE EMPEROR NOW HAD SUPREME AUTHORITHY

IN THE FIRST AND SECOND CENTURIES AD, THE ROMAN EMPIRE EXPANDED ITS FRONTIERS, AND THERE WAS LITTLE SOCIAL DISORDER. THIS PERIDO OF STABILITIY WAS KNOWN AS

2

THE R0MAN FRONTIER, OR LIMES, WAS DEFENDED BY A LONG LINE OF FORTIFICATIONS

THEY BECAME ROMAN CITIZENS AFTER THE EMPERIAL LAW OF 212 AD

3

PAX ROMANA

INSIDE THE EMPIRE, THE CONQUERED PEOPLE WERE STRONGLY ROMANISED AND ADOPTED ROMAN CUSTOMS, BELIEFS AND LANGUAGE


MAP OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.


ROMAN SOCIETY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

FAMILY LIFE

WEALTHY FAMILIES HAD SLAVES AND FREE SERVANTS

THE FATHER OR PATER FAMILIAS, WAS HEAD OF THE FAMILY

WOMEN HAD NO POLITICAL RIGHTS

ONLY THE CHILDREN OF WEALTHY FAMILIES RECEIVED AN EDUCATION

BOTH GIRLS AND BOYS WERE EDUCATED AT HOME, OFTEN BY GREEK TEACHERS


ROMAN SOCIETY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

FOOD

THE MAIN MEAL WAS THE CENAE, OR EVENING MEAL

WEALTHY PEOPLE ATE MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT, AND DRANK WINE

POOR PEOPLE ATE CEREALS MIXED WITH WATER AND FAT AND SOMETIMES ATE FRUIT

PATRICIANS USED TO ENJOY NICE MEALS THAT LASTED HOURS

THEY WERE SERVED AT TRICLINIA


ROMAN SOCIETY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

CLOTHING

WEALTHY PEOPLE WORE A TUNIC, WHICH WAS COVERED WITH A TOGA

FOR WOMEN THE TUNIC WAS COVERED WITH A STOLA

ROMAN WOMEN GAVE GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THEIR HAIR AND OFTEN WORE DECORATIONS IN IT.

IT CAN BE EASILY SEEN IN SCULPTURES AND PAINTINGS


THE ECONOMY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

SLAVE ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

Itthemaineconomicactivity. TheRomansgrewmanytypes of produce, includingcereals, olives and vines

Someregionsspecialised in one produce, so a lot of cornwasgrown in Egypt, olives in Hispania and vines in Gaul.

CRAFTWORK

Itwascarriedout in workshops, whereslaveswereused

MINES

Theybelongedtothestate, and wererentedtowealthypeople. Theyusedslavelabour

TRADE

Itwashelpedbythestability of theEmpire, the use of theRomancurrency, and anexcellentroadsystem


THE ECONOMY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.


ROMAN CITIES OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

ROMAN CITIES WERE CENTRES OF ROMANISATION. THEY HELPED TO SPREAD ROMAN CULTURE THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE

Theyhadtwomainstreets: thecardo (North to South), and thedecumanus(East to West)

CITIES HAD A GRID SYSTEM, SIMILARA TO A MILITARY CAMP

THE FORUM WAS THE CENTRAL SQUARE WHERE THE TWO STREETS CROSSED.

POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY TOOK PLACE THERE


ROMAN CITIES OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

THERE WERE MANY TYPE OF BUILDINGS

PUBLIC BUILDINGS INCLUDED BASILICAS, WHERE JUSTICE WAS ADMINISTERED

THERE WERE TEMPLES TO GODS AND GODDESSES

PUBLIC BATHS WERE ALSO MEETING PLACES

THERE WERE ALSO BUILDINGS FOR ENTERTAINMENT

GLADIATOR COMBATS TOOK PLACE IN AMPHITHEATRES

CHARIOT RACES IN CIRCUSES

THERE WERE SHOWS IN THEATRES


BUILDINGS FOR ENTERTAINMENT OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

AMPHITHEATRE

CIRCUS

THEATRE


OTHER BUILDINGS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

TEMPLE

ARCH


PRIVATE HOUSES OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

Thereweretwomaintype of privatehouses

DOMUS

INSULAE

Theyweresharedbuildingswithmanysmallapartments. Therewereoften shops and workshopsonthegroundfloor

Thistypewas a housefor a single wealthyfamily. Itsroomssurroundedanatriumorindoorcourtyard


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

IN MANY WAYS, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE WAS LIKE GREEK ARCHITECTURE, BUT THERE WERE SOME IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES

ROMAN ARCHICTECTURE WAS MONUMENTAL, AND ON A LARGER SCALE THAN GREEK ARCHITECTURE

THE ROMANS HAD VERY PRACTICAL OBJECTIVES. THEY CARRIED OUT GREAT GREAT ENGINEERING WORKS LIKE AQUEDUCTS, ROADS AND BRIDGES

UNLIKE THE GREEKS, THE ROMANS USED ARCHES AND VAULTS

THEY USED STONE FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, AS DID THE GREEKS. ALSO BRICK AND CEMENT

THEY INVENTED NEW ORDERS, AS WELL AS USING THE GREEK ORDERS


ROMAN SCULPTURE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

MANY WORKS OF ART WERE COPIES OF GREEK ORIGINALS. THANKS TO THAY WE HAVE THOSE MASTERPIECES

ROMANS CREATED MORE REALISTIC PORTRAITS THAN THE GREEKS, AND WERE LESS INTERESTED IN IDEAL BEAUTY

EQUESTRIAN STATUES WERE USED TO HONOUR EMPERORS AND GENERALS

THEY ALSO CREATED RELIEFS, WHICH SHOWED IMPORTANT EVENTS.

MARCUS AURELIUS

ESTATUA BARBERINI

TROJAN´S COLUMN


PAINTINGS AND MOSAICS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

PAINTINGS DECORATED THE WALLS OF PALACES AND THE HOUSES OF WEALTHY PEOPLE. MOST OF THE TECHNIQUE WAS DONE USING THE SECCO OR “DRY” METHOD, ALTHOUGH SOME PAINTINGS DID USE THE FRESCO METHOD.

THE MAIN INNOVATION OF ROMAN PAINTING COMPARED TO GREEK ART WAS THE INTRODUCTION OF IN THEIR DRAWINGS


MOSSAICS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

THEY WERE MADE O TINY SQUARE PIECES OF STONE, GLASS OR TILE. THEY DECORATED FLOORS WITH SCENES SHOWING DAILY LIFE, WAR OR RELIGION


ROMAN RELIGION OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

ROMAN RELIGION WAS POLITHEISTIC. MANY ROMAN GODS AND GODDESSES WERE ORIGINALLY GREEK, AND RECEIVED LATIN NAMES

THE ROMANS WORSHIPPED THE LARES AND PENATES, WHO WERE HOUSEHOLD GODS. THEY ALSO BELIEV ED IN THE MANES, WHO WERE THE SPIRITS OF THEIR ANCESTORS.

THEY WERE SUPERSTITIOUS AND CONSULTED THE GODS BEFORE THEY TOOK IMPORTANT DECISIONS. SOME EMPERORS WERE CONSIDERED GODS, ADN TEMPLES WERE BUILT IN THEIR HONOUR


THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

THE WARS AGAINST THE GERMANIC PEOPLE INCREASED THE INFLUENCE OF THE ARMY. THE EMPEROR BEGAN TO RELY MORE ON , WHO WER NOT UNDER HIS CONTROL

THE ROMAN EXPANSION HAD ENDED, THERE WERE FEWER SLAVES TO WORK IN MINING AND AGRICULTURE. THERE WAS A FALL IN PRODUCTION AND TRADE

URBAN LIFE DECLINED. THE EMPIRE INCREASED TAXES, AND MANY PEOPLE LEFT THE CITIES BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT PAY THEM. THEY WENT TO WORK ON VILLAS (COUNTRY HOMES FOR RICH PEOPLE THAT BECOME FARMS)

IN THE 3RD CENTURY AD, THE ROMAN EMPIRE ENTERED A CRISIS

POLITICS

ECONOMY

SOCIETY


CHRISTIANITY OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

DURING THE 3RD CENTURY AD, CHRISTIANITY SPREAD THROUGH THE EMPIRE. THE CHRISTIANS REFUSED TO WORSHIP THE EMPEROR OR SERVE IN THE ROMAN ARMY. THEY WERE PERSECUTED, AND PRACTISED THEIR RELIGION IN PRIVATE HOMES, OR UNDERGROUND PASSAGEWAYS CALLED CATACOMBS

IN THE 1ST CENTURY AD, THE FOLLOWERS OF JESUS OF NAZARETH FOUNDED CHRISTIANITY

THIS WAS A MONOTHEISTIC RELIGION, SO CHRISTIANS BELIVIED IN ONLY ONE GOD

ACCORDING TO CHRISTIANITY, PEOPLE SHOULD LOVE EACH OTHER, AND WOULD RECEIVE ETERNAL LIFE IF THEY FOLLOWED THEIR RELIGION

IN 313 AD, THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE ALLOWED RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. IN 380 AD, THE EMPEROR THEODOSIUS MADE CHRISTIANITY THE OFFICIAL RELIGION OF THE EMPIRE


THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

FROM THE 3RD CENTURY AD, THERE WERE MANY INVASIONS BY GERMANIC PEOPLE

THE ROMANS CALLED THESE PEOPLE BARBARIANS, OR FOREIGNERS

THEIR MIGRATIONS WERE CAUSED BY:

POPULATION GROWHT, WHICH MADE THEM LOOK FOR NEW AREAS TO SETTLE

THE PRESSURE FROM OTHER PEOPLE FURTHER EAST, WHICH FORCED THEM TO MIGRATE TOWARDS THE WEST AND SOUTH

THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE ENDEND IN THE 5TH CENTURY (476 AD WITH ROMULUS AUGUSTUS)

ROME WAS NOW TOO WEAK TO RESIST, SO ROMAN EMPERORS MADE A SERIES OF AGREEMENTS WITH GERMAN CHIEFTAINS. THEY OFFERED THEM SOME LANDS


THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.


THE BIZANTINE EMPIRE OF THE GOD MARS AND ETRUSCAN KING´S DAUGHTER. THEY WERE ABANDONED AS BABIES IN THE TIBER RIVER, AND WERE RAISED BY A WOLF. LATER, WHEN THE TWINS WERE ADULTS, THEY DECIDED TO FOUND A CITY. BUT THEY HAD A DISAGREEMENT, AND ROMULUS KILLED REMUS. ROMULUS CALLED TH NEW CITY ROME AND BECAME ITS FIRST KING.

IN 395AD THE EMPEROR THEODOSIUS DIVIDED THE ROMAN EMPIRE BETWEEN HIS TWO SONS. ROME REMAINED THE CAPITAL OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE AND CONSTANTINOPLE BECAME CAPITAL OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE

THE EASTERN EMPIRE SURVIVED THE INVASIONS AND BECAME KNOWN AS THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. BYZANTIUM WAS THE NAME OF A GREEK COLONY WHERE THE CONSTANTINOPLE WAS FOUNDED

BYZANTINE CIVILISATION WAS INFLUENCED BY GREEK AND ROMAN CULTURE, AND GREEK WAS ITS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE. UNDER EMPEOR JUSTINIAN (527-565 AD) BYZANTIUM RECONQUERED PART OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE


ad