Newborn appearance
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Newborn Appearance. They aren’t always “cute” at birth!. http://pregnancy.about.com/od/newbornbabies/ig/Newborn-Photo-Gallery/Newborn-Baby-Birth-Photo.htm. Molded head. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098. Molded head, continued.

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Newborn Appearance

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Newborn Appearance


They aren’t always “cute” at birth!

  • http://pregnancy.about.com/od/newbornbabies/ig/Newborn-Photo-Gallery/Newborn-Baby-Birth-Photo.htm


Molded head

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098


Molded head, continued

  • During childbirth, pressure from the tight birth canal may cause your baby's skull bones to shift and overlap. This may result in an elongated or cone-shaped skull at birth — particularly if you had a long labor or a vacuum extractor was used during delivery. You can expect your newborn to have a more rounded head within a few days.

  • Babies born buttocks or feet first or by C-section are more likely to have round heads at birth.


Facial features—puffy eyes

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=2


Puffy eyes

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/PuffyEyes1.html


Facial features, continued

  • Pressure on the face during delivery may leave your newborn's eyelids puffy or swollen. Sometimes small blood vessels in the eyes break during birth, which may cause red spots on the whites of your newborn's eyes (called subconjunctival hemorrhage). Also, life in a crowded uterus may leave your newborn with a nose that's flattened or pushed to the side or ears that seem folded over. Don't worry. These issues are usually temporary.


Folded ears

  • http://www.popgive.com/2009/01/adorable-baby-pictures-you-would-never.html


Ear fold

  • www.flickr.com


Positional Nasal Deformity

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/CompressedNose2.html


http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=7

A newborn's legs and feet often look bowed or bent, thanks to the cramped quarters of the womb. As long as your newborn's legs and feet are flexible and can easily be moved about, there's no need for concern. The curves typically straighten on their own as the baby becomes more mobile.

Legs and feet bowed/bent


Umbilical cord at birth

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM00659


http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Cord1.html

This infant is 7 hours old. The cord is plump and pale yellow in appearance. One of the umbilical arteries is visible protruding from the cut edge. A normal cord has two arteries (small, round vessels with thick walls) and one vein (a wide, thin-walled vessel that usually looks flat after clamping).

http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Cord1.html

Umbilical cord


Umbilical cord, stained with iodine

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=3


Umbilical cord, continued

  • The stump of a newborn's umbilical cord is usually yellowish green at birth. If the stump is treated with iodine, it may look blue as in the previous photo. As the stump dries out and eventually falls off — usually within two weeks after birth — it will change from yellowish green to brown to black. In the meantime, keep the stump clean and dry. Expose the stump to air to help dry out the base, and stick to sponge baths while the area is healing. Swab the stump with rubbing alcohol several times a day.


Umbilical cord drying up

  • After a couple of days, the cord is a stiff, dry stump. The bulge of skin around the edge is a normal variant and does not represent an abnormality.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Cord4.html


Umbilical stump, hard and dry

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/CordIrritation1.html


Cord stump separation

  • Just minutes after the cord falls off, some of the remaining moist debris is still visible on the skin. A spot of blood or a slight amount of moist, yellow material may be present on the diaper or clothing after cord separation. Any bleeding or discharge that persists should be reported to the doctor.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Cord5.html


Complexion

  • You may notice white spots on your newborn's face that look like tiny pimples. These harmless spots are known as milia.


Milia

  • The white spots on this baby's chin and cheeks are milia. Milia are keratin filled epithethial cysts which occur in up to 40% of newborns. Spontaneous resolution is expected within a few weeks. Parents will occasionally mistake these lesions for neonatal acne, but milia are present at birth and have no inflammatory component. Newborn acne, even though caused by maternal hormones, does not generally appear until after 2 weeks of age.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Milia1.html


  • http://martinbarron.org/Baby/archive/2006_10_01_archive.php


Baby/Newborn acne

  • Later, your newborn may develop small red bumps on his or her face. This is sometimes known as newborn acne. Milia typically disappear within a few weeks. Newborn acne may stick around for several months.


Baby Acne

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/baby-rashes/FL00090&slide=4


Baby acne

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=4


http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=5

A dry, flaky, peeling appearance of the skin is very common in newborns. Although this can be distressing to parents, it does not need treatment and will spontaneously resolve.

Dry skin


Normal peeling

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Peeling1.html


Normal peeling

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Peeling2.html


Dry skin

  • The top layer of a newborn's skin flakes off shortly after birth. You may notice plenty of dry, peeling skin for the first few weeks.


Normal peeling

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Peeling3.html


Skin, lanugo

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Lanugo1.html


Lanugo

  • Some newborns are covered by fine, downy hair at birth. Known as lanugo, it is found most often on the baby’s back, shoulders, forehead, and temples. Tiny hairs may also appear on your newborn's ears or in other spots. Lanugo is most common in premature babies. It typically wears off from normal friction within several weeks.

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL00098&slide=8


Lanugo

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Turners1.html


Slate Grey Patches (Mongolian Spots)

  • These dark blue-grey areas are most commonly seen in darker-skinned infants. These dark patches tend to fade over several years but may not completely disappear. No treatment is needed. They can be easily differentiated from bruises by the absence of other colors associated with bruises -- red, purple, green, brown or yellow.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/SlateGrey1.html


Newborn Rash

  • Newborn rash starts on day 1 or 2 and increase over the next several days, followed by spontaneous resolution in about a week. Even newborns who have hundreds of spots are not symptomatic and need no treatment. Nearly half of all newborns will develop this rash.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/ETox3.html,

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/ETox1.html


http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/newborn/FL000

98&slide=6

You may notice reddish or pink patches above the hairline at the back of the neck, on the eyelids, or between your newborn's eyes. These marks — sometimes nicknamed stork bites or angel kisses — are caused by collections of blood vessels close to the skin. Marks between the eyes usually fade with time. Marks on the nape of the neck usually remain, although they may become less noticeable as your baby gets older.

Stork bites and angel kisses


Cradle cap

  • Cradle cap appears as thick, yellow, crusty or greasy patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap is most common in newborns and usually clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash your baby's hair once a day with mild baby shampoo. Loosen the scales with a small, soft-bristled brush before rinsing off the shampoo. For stubborn scales, rub a few drops of mineral oil onto your baby's scalp, wait a few minutes, and then brush and shampoo your baby's hair. If cradle cap persists, consult your baby's doctor.

  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/baby-rashes/FL00090


Crossed eyes (dysconjugate eye movements)

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/SleepyEyes1.html


Crossed eyes


Crossed eyes(dysconjugate eye movements)

  • During the first few months of life, newborns will frequently have dysconjugate eye movements, where the eyes appear to move independently. Eyes may appear crossed. This phenomena is particularly noticeable when the infant is falling asleep or being awakened from sleep. Unless one eye is fixed (one eye is always out, or always in, relative to the other), this is a normal finding and will spontaneously resolve.


Umbilical Hernia

  • When the umbilical ring is weak or large, an umbilical hernia can result. With increased abdominal pressure (the infant was crying for this photo), a bulge of intra-abdominal contents through the ring can be seen. This does not require treatment, as most hernias of this type resolve spontaneously during the first year of life. Surgical correction is only considered for those who have large defects that are still open at several years of age.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/UmbHernia1.html


Umbilical Hernia

  • In this view, the hernia has been reduced with slight digital pressure on the bulged area. The infant is now quiet, and intra-abdominal pressure low, so the hernia is no longer visible. Parents are often concerned about the size of the bulge, but the severity of the hernia is determined solely by the size of the umbilical ring. The visibility of the bulge is related to intra-abdominal pressure and is therefore constantly changing.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/UmbHernia2.html


Hips

  • Hips are assessed by looking at the symmetry of the height of the knees when the infant is supine (on his/her back). Unequal knee heights suggests a dislocated hip. The infant in this photo does NOT have dislocated hips.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Galeazzi1.html


Normal Hips

  • With a side few of the same infant in the previous photo, the knees still appear symmetric, meaning the hips are not dislocated

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Galeazzi2.html


Dislocated Hip

  • With both feet placed firmly on the table, this infants knees are not symmetric. This is usually an indication of a dislocated hip. In this case, the left hip was the abnormal one.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Galeazzi3.html


Dislocated Hip

  • This is the side view of the same infant as in the previous photo. Again, the left knee is slightly lower than the right, indicating a dislocated hip.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Galeazzi4.html


Pavlik Harness

  • When instability of one or both hips is identified, an orthopedic consult should be obtained. In many cases, a Pavlik harness will be placed on the infant before he/she is discharged from the hospital.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Pavlik1.html


Hips (breech position)

  • When an infant has been in breech position in utero, the legs have a tendency to remain in this position for the first few days. As with any positional deformity, spontaneous resolution is anticipated.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Breech1.html


Breasts and Genitals

  • Before birth, the mother's hormones pass through the placenta and into the baby's system. This may lead to swollen breasts and genitals at birth in both boys and girls.

  • Newborn girls may have a swollen vulva and light vaginal discharge as well. The swelling typically disappears within two to four weeks without treatment. The vaginal discharge may last only several days.

  • Newborn boys often have a very large scrotum at birth. Pressure of the uterine contractions may aggravate the condition. In some infants, the testes do not descend into the scrotal sac until after birth. Swelling will resolve without treatment.


Genital area/normal (male)

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/MaleGU1.html


Swollen genital area/male

  • http://pregnancy.about.com/od/newbornbabies/ig/Newborn-Photo-Gallery/Newborn-Baby-Boy.htm


Undescended Testicles

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/UndescTesticle1.html


Genital area/normal (female)

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/FemaleGU1.html


Swollen breasts


Pseudo menstruation/vaginal discharge

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/VaginalBlood1.html


Pseudo menstruation/vaginal discharge

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/VaginalBlood2.html


Pseudo menstruation, continued

  • This is normal vaginal bleeding that occurs in some female infants. This typically occurs on the third day after birth, continues for a few days, then stops.


Jaundice

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Jaundice1.html


Jaundice

  • Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin and the white part of the eyes. It results from having too much of a substance called bilirubin in the blood.

  • Bilirubin is formed when the body breaks down old red blood cells. The liver usually processes and removes the bilirubin from the blood.

  • Jaundice in babies usually occurs because their immature livers are not efficient at removing bilirubin from the bloodstream.


Jaundice, continued

  • Jaundice usually appears around the second or third day of life. It begins at the head and progresses downward. A jaundiced baby's skin will usually appear yellow first on the face, followed by the chest and stomach, and finally, the legs.


Treatment for Jaundice

  • Sunlight helps to break down bilirubin so that a baby's liver can process it more easily.

  • Placing a child in a well-lit window for 10 minutes twice a day is often all that is needed to help cure mild jaundice. (Never place an infant in direct sunlight.)

  • If the bilirubin level is too high, the child may need to be placed under a special type of light. This treatment is called phototherapy.

  • If an infant's bilirubin levels are very high or if the child appears ill, the baby will most likely be admitted to the hospital for phototherapy treatment.


Jaundice (Phototherapy)

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/Jaundice.html


http://pediatrics.about.com/od/newbornsandbabies/ig/Premature-Babies/Phototherapy.htm

Jaundice (Phototherapy)


Before After

Phototherapy Phototherapy


Jaundice, possible complications

  • Very high levels of bilirubin can damage the brain. This is called kernicterus. However, the condition is almost always diagnosed before levels become high enough to cause this damage.

  • Cerebral palsy and deafness can also be caused by severe jaundice.


Tongue tie (Ankyloglossia)

  • This is an example of tongue tie in a 7-year old girl. The frenum, which is the string that connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth, is abnormal and pulls down the tongue, restricting it from moving freely and preventing the formation of a tongue tip.

  • http://www.tonguetie.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=12


Tongue tie

  • When tongue tie restricts tongue movement, surgical correction may be needed.

  • The age at which this procedure can be performed ranges from 7 days to 70 years old.

  • http://www.tonguetie.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=12


Tongue tie

  • Tongue-tie occurs in approximately 4% of newborns. Many babies with this condition can breastfeed without difficulty, but in some cases, a tight frenum makes latching on difficult.

  • http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/Ankyloglossia1.html


Wrist lesions (and lanugo)

  • Wrist lesions are caused by fetal sucking on the wrist.

  • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://newborns.stanford.edu/images/suckingblister1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://newborns.stanford.edu/PhotoGallery/SuckingBlister1.html&usg=__MQzzITUCBV4vAmve8QSPGJp2kKQ=&h=430&w=545&sz=38&hl=en&start=3&itbs=1&tbnid=avcF57BBDYjT2M:&tbnh=105&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnewborn%2Bsucking%2Bblister%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1


Vernix Caseosa

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernix_caseosa


Vernix Caseosa

  • http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernix_caseosa


The way a baby sucks when feeding creates friction on the lips, which can cause blisters. Such blisters are more common in breastfed babies than in formula-fed babies, probably because nursing babies have to create suction with their mouths in a way that causes more rubbing. Parents don't need to do anything about lip blisters, which usually aren't painful. Lip blisters tend to show up among younger babies and are occasionally present at birth. If present at birth, the blisters are evidence that the newborn was sucking on his/her fingers or toes in utero.

http://www.jnjmilestones.com/2009/09/lip-blisters.html

Lip blisters


Lip blisters

  • http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3206/2456593467_5ea1812633.jpg


Cyanosis

  • http://healthprofessions.missouri.edu/cpd/RT/CRCE/nrpinfo.php


Cyanosis

  • When a baby is first born, the skin is a dark red to purple color. As the baby begins to breathe air, the color changes to red. This redness normally begins to fade in the first day. A baby's hands and feet may stay bluish in color for several days. This is a normal response to a baby's immature blood circulation. Blue coloring of other parts of the body, however, is not normal and may indicate heart or lung problems.


Forceps/Vacuum Assisted Delivery

  • A vacuum is a cap like device that is attached to the baby's head.  A rubber tube extends from the cap to a vacuum pump that creates suction on the baby's head.  Forceps are two "spoon like" instruments that hook together to look like salad tongs that surround the baby's head.  Both instruments are used in conjunction with contractions to guide the baby's head down the birth canal.

  • In most instances a woman who needs this kind of assistance has been pushing quite a while and the baby's head is not descending. 

  • Both forceps and the vacuum will bruise your baby.  A vacuum assisted birth will leave your baby with a temporary bruise on the top of its head from the force of the suction.  Forceps create bruises on the sides of the babies head.


http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=forceps+and+vacuum+extractor&go=&form=QBIR&qs=n&sk=&adlt=strict#focal=1a82477328900dd03afa7c631577ee5b&furl=http%3A%2F%2F0.tqn.com%2Fd%2Fpregnancy%2F1%2F5%2Ft%2FZ%2F3%2Fvacuum.jpg


http://pregnancy.about.com/od/newbornbabies/ig/Newborn-Photo-Gallery/Newborn-with-Forcep-Marks.htm

http://archderm.ama-assn.org/content/vol135/issue6/images/medium/dre8034f14.jpg

Forceps bruises


http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=vacuum+extraction&qpvt=vacuum+extraction&FORM=Z7FD1#focal=c7703498b9a1cb387d0463f4c1dae6c4&furl=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F9%2F93%2FVacuum_Extraction_bruised_scalp.JPG

This is bruising and deformation of the scalp caused by vacuum extraction. This child's scalp was fine within a week after birth.

Vacuum extraction bruising


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