By: Jennifer Schaffer
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By: Jennifer Schaffer [email protected] LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids). Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey. 3-D Image of LNAPL Plume. Leaks & Spills: 1992-2002 Sampling of Incidents at Shell Group Companies & Joint Ventures*.

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By: Jennifer Schaffer [email protected]

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By: Jennifer Schaffer

[email protected]


LNAPL(Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids)

Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey


3-D Image of LNAPL Plume


Leaks & Spills: 1992-2002

Sampling of Incidents at Shell Group Companies & Joint Ventures*

Derived from: http://www.shellfacts.com/downloads/Leaks&Spills2.pdf


Prevalence of Gasoline Spills

  • 8 sites on the NPL

  • According to National Response Center, have been 7,957 gasoline spills on land since 1990.

  • Gas spills were primarily unreported until recent history.

    • There were no formal reporting requirements prior to 1970.

    • From 1970-1980, only spills that reached navigable waters had to be reported


  • U.S. v. Apex Oil Co., Inc., 579 F.3d 734 (7th Cir. 2009)


Sugar Creek, Missouri

http://www.krohm.com/sugarcrk/index.htm


Methods Used for Cleanup

  • Biofiltration

  • Scrubbers

  • Carbon Absorbtion

  • Bioremediation - microbials

  • Free product recovery – Skimming systems

  • Free product recovery – water table depression

  • Vapor Extraction

  • Dual Phase Recovery

  • Pumps


Bioremediation


Scrubbers


Carbon Absorption


Skimming


Water Table Depression


Vapor Extraction


Dual Phase Recovery


Pumping


Circulation

pump


Solar

powered

pump


Enhanced Methods

  • Steam

  • Surfactants

  • Phased soil heating

  • Chemical oxidation

  • Hot and cold water floods


Steam

This process requires large facilities and operations as well as significant time and money.


Surfactants

Wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between the two liquids. These are already used in green cleaning products.


Phased Soil Heating


Chemical Oxidation


Ways this Gasoline Could be Used

  • Marine Uses

  • Aviation Fuel

  • South America, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East – automotive

  • Racing cars

  • Farm equipment

  • Industrial uses

  • Energy Production


Patent, 1935

issued to

F.E. Neff, Jr.


Patent for using ammonium phosphate to clean lead from gasoline/oil products


http://www.mckenziecorp.com/hydrocarbon.htm


Carbon

Scrubbers


So, why are more companies not recycling/reusing the gas?

  • Cost – is it worth the costs?

    • How do the costs compare?

    • Are there “hidden costs” to recovery?

    • Diminishing Returns from recovery

  • Potentially liability

    • Ramifications of claiming the gasoline

    • Property dispute issues


Hydraulic Recovery of the Oil Poses Difficulty

  • Residual saturation trapped by capillary forces

  • Heterogeneity of the soil

  • Conductivity of the LNAPL phase


  • What could be done to encourage recycling?

    • Legislation which encourages and or compels recovery

    • Legislation which removes liability issues

    • Legislation which resolves property ownership issues

  • Should it be done?

    • Would we be trading one pollution for another?

    • Should there be limits or regulations on how recovered gasoline can be used/sold?


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