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By: Jennifer Schaffer LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids). Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey. 3-D Image of LNAPL Plume. Leaks & Spills: 1992-2002 Sampling of Incidents at Shell Group Companies & Joint Ventures*.

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By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

By: Jennifer Schaffer

Lnapl light non aqueous phase liquids

LNAPL(Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids)

Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey

3 d image of lnapl plume

3-D Image of LNAPL Plume

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

Leaks & Spills: 1992-2002

Sampling of Incidents at Shell Group Companies & Joint Ventures*

Derived from:

Prevalence of gasoline spills

Prevalence of Gasoline Spills

  • 8 sites on the NPL

  • According to National Response Center, have been 7,957 gasoline spills on land since 1990.

  • Gas spills were primarily unreported until recent history.

    • There were no formal reporting requirements prior to 1970.

    • From 1970-1980, only spills that reached navigable waters had to be reported

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

  • U.S. v. Apex Oil Co., Inc., 579 F.3d 734 (7th Cir. 2009)

Sugar creek missouri

Sugar Creek, Missouri

Methods used for cleanup

Methods Used for Cleanup

  • Biofiltration

  • Scrubbers

  • Carbon Absorbtion

  • Bioremediation - microbials

  • Free product recovery – Skimming systems

  • Free product recovery – water table depression

  • Vapor Extraction

  • Dual Phase Recovery

  • Pumps





Carbon absorption

Carbon Absorption



Water table depression

Water Table Depression

Vapor extraction

Vapor Extraction

Dual phase recovery

Dual Phase Recovery



By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com



By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com




Enhanced methods

Enhanced Methods

  • Steam

  • Surfactants

  • Phased soil heating

  • Chemical oxidation

  • Hot and cold water floods



This process requires large facilities and operations as well as significant time and money.



Wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between the two liquids. These are already used in green cleaning products.

Phased soil heating

Phased Soil Heating

Chemical oxidation

Chemical Oxidation

Ways this gasoline could be used

Ways this Gasoline Could be Used

  • Marine Uses

  • Aviation Fuel

  • South America, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East – automotive

  • Racing cars

  • Farm equipment

  • Industrial uses

  • Energy Production

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

Patent, 1935

issued to

F.E. Neff, Jr.

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

Patent for using ammonium phosphate to clean lead from gasoline/oil products

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com



So why are more companies not recycling reusing the gas

So, why are more companies not recycling/reusing the gas?

  • Cost – is it worth the costs?

    • How do the costs compare?

    • Are there “hidden costs” to recovery?

    • Diminishing Returns from recovery

  • Potentially liability

    • Ramifications of claiming the gasoline

    • Property dispute issues

Hydraulic recovery of the oil poses difficulty

Hydraulic Recovery of the Oil Poses Difficulty

  • Residual saturation trapped by capillary forces

  • Heterogeneity of the soil

  • Conductivity of the LNAPL phase

By jennifer schaffer jenniferscha gmail com

  • What could be done to encourage recycling?

    • Legislation which encourages and or compels recovery

    • Legislation which removes liability issues

    • Legislation which resolves property ownership issues

  • Should it be done?

    • Would we be trading one pollution for another?

    • Should there be limits or regulations on how recovered gasoline can be used/sold?

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