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Health: 14 th -19 th Century European History. By Kassi , Clare, Kendall. Unit I : The Late Middle Ages, The Renaissance, The Reformation. Chapters 11, 12, 13. The Little Ice Age. Drop in overall temperatures Shortened growing seasons 1315-1317 heavy rains destroyed harvests

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the little ice age
The Little Ice Age
  • Drop in overall temperatures
  • Shortened growing seasons
  • 1315-1317 heavy rains destroyed harvests
  • Caused extreme hunger and starvation
  • Killed 10% of European population in first half of 14th century
  • Malnutrition
    • Disease
    • Infant mortalitity
the black death
The Black Death
  • mid 14th century
  • Originated in Asia
  • Spread by rats and fleas
  • Symptoms: high fever, aching joints, swelling of lymph nodes, internal bleeding
  • Killed 50-60% of victims
  • 20-50% of total European population killed
  • Reactions by population
    • Indulgent living
    • Flagellants
  • Revolts
  • Look in to medical knowledge
  • Health/sanitation laws made
new directions in medicine
New Directions in Medicine
  • Hippocrates
  • Galen: 4 humors
    • Phlegm
    • Yellow bile
    • Black bile
    • blood
  • Physicians had little or no practice
  • Rise of surgeons
  • Anatomy
  • Medical textbooks made
  • 14th century: 6 medical schools
    • Paris most prestigious
conquest
Conquest
  • Aztecs and Incas
    • No immunity to European germs
      • Measles, small pox
advancements in medicine
Advancements in Medicine
  • Galen
    • Incorrect anatomy based on animals
    • Treatment based on imbalance of humors
    • Belief in two separate body systems
      • Muscular and digestive
  • Paracelsus
    • Macrocosmic-Microcosm philosophy
    • Disease caused by chemical imbalances
      • Treated by chemical remedies
  • Vesalius
    • Anatomy of humans
    • Corrected Galen’s theory of blood from liver
  • Harvey
    • Blood from heart
    • blood makes a complete circuit
      • One body system
    • Modern foundation of physiology
world of medicine
World of Medicine
  • Hospitals = bad sanitary conditions
  • Hierarchy of practitioners
    • Physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, midwifes, faith healers
popular culture
Popular Culture
  • Alcohol
    • Gin, vodka
      • Poor would drink selves into oblivion
growth of european population
Growth of European Population
  • Decline in death rate
    • Plentiful food
    • Better transportation of food supply
      • Improved diets
  • Introduction of new crops
    • Potatoes
    • Corn
      • More nutritious food supply
  • End of Plague
  • Typhus, small pox, influenza, dysentery
  • Poor hygienic conditions
birth control
Birth Control
  • Coitus interruptus
    • End of 18th century: used to limit number of children
an agricultural revolution
An Agricultural Revolution
  • Increases in food production
    • More farm land
    • Healthier livestock
      • Increase in meat in European diet
    • Improved climate
    • JethroTull
      • Use of hoe
      • Seed drill
peasant diet
Peasant Diet
  • Dark bread = staple
  • Water, wine, beer
  • Potatoes, corn
  • More susceptible to disease when harvests were bad
population growth
Population Growth
  • 140 million: 1750
  • 266 million: 1850
  • Drop in number of deaths from famines
  • Plague and small pox numbers declined
  • Better food supply
    • More resistant to disease
the great hunger
The Great Hunger
  • The Potato Famine
    • Ireland
    • Struck by fungus
      • Turned potatoes black
    • Decimated Irish population
    • Over a million died of starvation and disease
    • Almost 2 million emigrated to the United States
urban living conditions in the early industrial revolution
Urban Living Conditions in the Early Industrial Revolution
  • Dramatic growth of cities
    • Miserable living conditions
  • 1 toilet for 20 families
  • Manchester, England: 1842
    • Average life span = 17 years
  • Countryside, England: 1842
    • Average life span = 38-40 years
  • Cholera
  • Edward Chadwick
    • Reported on conditions of laboring population
  • Public Health Act 1848
    • Attempted to clean unsanitary conditions
factory conditions during the industrial revolution
Factory Conditions during the Industrial Revolution
  • Awful
  • 12-16 hour work days
  • 6 day weeks
  • Little breaks for food
    • malnutrition
  • Dangerous cave-ins, explosions, gas fumes in mines
    • Cramped conditions
      • Deformed bodies
    • Dampness
      • Ruined lungs
factory reforms
Factory Reforms
  • Improved conditions slightly
  • Longer breaks
  • Shorter work days
  • Women and children couldn’t work in coal mines
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Western Civilization
    • Spielvogel
  • AP Euro Website
    • Gnass
  • Google Images
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