U s nuclear power sister plant radiological effluent release comparisons
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U.S. Nuclear Power Sister Plant Radiological Effluent Release Comparisons. J.T. Harris 1,3 , D.W. Miller 2,3 1 Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; 2 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL; 3 North American Technical Center, Urbana, IL. Outline. Introduction

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U.S. Nuclear Power Sister Plant Radiological Effluent Release Comparisons

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U s nuclear power sister plant radiological effluent release comparisons

U.S. Nuclear Power Sister Plant Radiological Effluent Release Comparisons

J.T. Harris1,3, D.W. Miller2,31Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL;3North American Technical Center, Urbana, IL

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • NATC U.S. Effluent Database

  • Effluent Release Trends

  • Dose Determination

  • U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • Conclusions

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Introduction

Introduction

  • Effluent Tracking

    • Liquid and gaseous effluents

    • BNL Collected and tabulated US NPP effluent data prior to 1994

    • 1996 NATC asked to take over task (as independent scientific organization for UNSCEAR)

    • Since 1998, NATC has collected and performed research on effluent data from NRC and licensees (support of UNSCEAR, EPRI, NEI, ANI, licensees and universities)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Introduction1

Introduction

  • NATC U.S. Effluent Database

    • In 2000, NATC program became known as the Public Radiation Safety Program

    • Goals include:

      • development and maintenance of database for use by NPPs, regulatory bodies and scientific analysis

      • Expanded trend analysis and discussion of effluent data

      • Standardized entry form development for licensee use

      • Establishment of effluent website for general use

      • Establishment of an effluent expert group

      • (Expanded to radwaste)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Introduction2

Introduction

  • Data Compilation and Purpose

    • Current (Ongoing) Study

      • Evaluate significance, if any, of NPP effluent releases in terms of trends, dose commitments and benchmarking (emphasis on sister plant comparisons)

      • Analysis of data from 1994-2002 (2003 in progress)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Natc u s effluent database

NATC U.S. Effluent Database

  • Developed to satisfy needs of U.S. and international organizations

    • Format – U.S. NRC Reg. Guide 1.21 reports and UNSCEAR

    • Raw and un-normalized values (Ci and GBq) for individual units and sites (operating and shutdown)

    • Normalized values (activity vs. net electrical energy, not the best)

    • Collective effective dose calculated (UNSCEAR)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Effluent release trends

Effluent Release Trends

  • Important to evaluate release trends, especially as nuclear power generation steadily increases in the U.S.

  • Trends evaluated for un-normalized and normalized data (better reflect particular operating conditions and no skewed values, but public doesn’t care)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Effluent release trends1

Effluent Release Trends

  • 8-year period fairly constant, with slight decreases in some categories

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Effluent release trends2

Effluent Release Trends

  • 8-year period fairly constant, with slight decreases in some categories

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Dose determination

Dose Determination

  • Dose determination performed to evaluate the human effects of effluents

  • Currently NATC uses UNSCEAR effluent dose assessment model (for average trends)

    • Uses “representative” environmental conditions and population density

    • Collective effective dose per unit of electrical energy generated (normalized release divided by calculated collective doses per unit release – from dose pathway models)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Dose determination1

Dose Determination

  • Total BWR and PWR effluent collective effective doses (very low – highest value 0.12% annual limit)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


U s commercial npp benchmarking

U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • Commercial nuclear power industry has long used benchmarking studies to promote excellence in plant work management and operation practices

  • Other organizations also benchmark (U.S. NRC, ANI, INPO, and NATC)

  • Reductions in plant RETS-REMP programs have led to concern among U.S. NRC and ANI- thus it is even more important now to further monitor and compare effluent releases

  • Performance ranks lead to increased scrutiny

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


U s commercial npp benchmarking1

U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • Current study – ranking/comparing releases by plant design (sister plants)- un-normalized data (within and between groups)

  • BWR sister plants

    • GE: BWR-2, BWR-3, BWR-4, BWR-5, BWR-6

  • PWR sister plants

    • B&W 2 Loop, CE 2 Loop, Westinghouse 2 Loop, 3 Loop (Gen 1 & 2), 3-Loop (Gen 1) and 4 Loop (Gen 1 & 2)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


U s commercial npp benchmarking2

U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • BWR Results

Average Effluent Release

Average Collective Effective Doses

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


U s commercial npp benchmarking3

U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • PWR Results

Average Effluent Release

Average Collective Effective Doses

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


U s commercial npp benchmarking4

U.S. Commercial NPP Benchmarking

  • Results

    • BWR

      • Effluent release values very wide ranging

      • No obvious trends

      • Age affect (newer plants, higher liquids; older plants, higher gaseous)

    • PWR

      • Wide ranging but more consistent with each other (compared to BWR designs)

      • No affect from age

    • U.S. NPP effluent data never presented this way

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Development of U.S. Effluent database has been used to provide data to utilities, UNSCEAR, U.S. NRC and CEPN (European Technical Center)

  • Calculated “average” CEDs give indication of how low effluent releases are and can be used for international comparisons

  • Sister plant breakdowns give additional tool for utilities and new perspective for comparison

  • However, more studies need to be performed to truly grasp effluent releases, as releases are not dictated solely by electrical generation

    • Other studies underway - complete inventory of radioactive materials solid radwaste), work practices, individual isotopes, radwaste systems

    • Use of standardized report and expert group

    • More discussion through RETS-REMP workshop

    • Discussion with UNSCEAR

  • Effluent data important for future (baseline data for new siting, radionuclide buildup in the environment and public perception)

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


Thank you

Thank you!!

Questions?

14th Annual RETS/REMP Workshop June 28-30, 2004


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