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Europe in crisis. Disease, war, and schism. Europe in crisis: disease. The Bubonic Plague Known as the Black Death only from 1346-1353 in Europe. Enzootic Meaning it was contracted by humans from animals. Where did it come from? Originated in Asia Probably China

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europe in crisis

Europe in crisis

Disease, war, and schism

europe in crisis disease
Europe in crisis: disease

The Bubonic Plague

  • Known as the Black Death only from 1346-1353 in Europe.
  • Enzootic
    • Meaning it was contracted by humans from animals.

Where did it come from?

  • Originated in Asia
    • Probably China
    • First outbreak is seen around Lake IssykKulin Kyrgyzstan in 1338

How was it spread?

  • By the old Silk Road, both via land routes and sea routes
europe in crisis disease3
Europe in crisis: disease

First Signs of a Pandemic

  • Crops up in the Byzantine Empire in the 6th & 7th centuries.
    • Known as the Plague of Justinian
    • Wipes out possibly 40% of the population of Constantinople.

Why do you think it took so long for the plague to become a world wide pandemic?

Do you think Europe was more susceptible to the plague than other parts of the world? Why?

europe in crisis disease4
Europe in crisis: disease

A Weak Europe is Easy Prey for the Plague

  • A warming trend comes to a close in the North Atlantic region (950-1250 c.e.)
  • A “little ice age” begins (1350-1850 c.e.)
  • Higher fertility rates (5 per woman)
    • Less food
    • More people ---- Which leads to what?
  • Heavy rains begin to hit Europe by the fall of 1314
    • Cold and wet winters make harvests worse.
    • Seven year famine results – The Great Famine

What problems do you foresee arising from a shifting climate?

  • Lower yield harvests
  • New heavy plow and three-field system weren’t as effective in the north – harder clay soil.
europe in crisis disease5
Europe in crisis: disease

How It Spread

  • Oct. 1347 it reaches Sicily, brought by ships coming from Genoa.
  • Outbreak in Pisa that spread through Northern Italy.
  • A ship expelled from Italy reached Marseille, France in Jan 1348.
  • After France it hit Spain, Portugal, and England by June 1348.
  • It spread east through Scandinavia and Germany by 1350.
danse macabre the dance of death
Danse Macabre “The Dance of Death”
  • Ankle length over-coat.
  • Bird like beak mask.
  • Gloves, boots, brimmed hat, cloak.
danse macabre the dance of death2
Danse Macabre “The Dance of Death”


St. Nicholas Church, Estonia

europe in crisis disease7
Europe in crisis: disease

Consequences of the Black Death in Europe

  • Better sanitation – Pistoia (city in Tuscany), decreed that butchers and sellers of meat can’t stable horses or allow any mud or dung inside a shop where meat is sold.
  • Religious fundamentalism – whipping in order to placate god.
  • Persecutions against Jews
  • Art – the Dance of Death
  • Rise in the standard of living
  • Rise in education – new universities founded
europe in crisis war
Europe in crisis: War
  • England dominated the first three phases.
    • The Kingdom of Burgundy was created that allied itself with England for a time.
  • Fourth Phase and a turnaround for the French.
    • 1429, Joan shows up at the royal court in full armor, riding a horse, and followed by a small army.
    • She fights and wins the Battle of Orleans – convincing the French crown (Charles VII) she is sent from God.
europe in crisis war1
Europe in crisis: War
  • Edward’s campaigns in France achieved little.
    • Invaded again at Normandy in 1346
    • Philip musters troops to meet him at Crecy
    • English victory, but not decisive.
  • Black Prince launches pirate raids in France.
    • French finally force a battle
    • King John II is captured in the French defeat.
    • Ends the 1st phase of the war.
  • Peace treaty in 1359
    • English ransom John back to the French
    • English territories in Gascony are enlarged
    • Edward renounced claims to the French throne
    • John gives up control over English lands in France.
  • First phase makes it clear that the English cannot takeover all of France.
europe in crisis war2
Europe in crisis: War
  • Treaty wasn’t really enforced
    • French recover all their lost lands under John’s son Charles V.
  • English Renew War
    • Strike when France is going through civil war
    • Burgundy and Orleans try to control the French crown
    • Henry V invades in 1415 at Battle of Agincourt
    • French loss and English ally themselves with Burgundy
    • Force Charles VI to sign a treaty wedding Henry V to his daughter.
    • By 1420 the English rule northern France
europe in crisis war3
Europe in crisis: War

Who Will Save the French….?

    • Apparently all it takes is a teenage girl.
  • Joan of Arc
    • Experience religious visions
    • Persuades the French king to allow her to accompany them.
    • Predicts that Charles (Charles VI son) will sit on the throne of France.
    • Captured by Burgundy and turned over to the English.
  • Her exploits give new life to the French they go on to win the war
    • Cannon (gunpowder)
    • England loses commanders and their was political instability.
europe in crisis schism
Europe in crisis: Schism


  • By 1300 the papacy had reached its zenith.
  • 1290: Both England and France taxed landed estates and bishoprics (secular area of land ruled by a clerical office).
  • Pope Boniface VIII (1302) says no taxation of the clergy by civil rulers.
    • Issues papal bull, Unam Sanctum – outside the Roman church there is no salvation, all human creatures are subject to the Roman pontiff.
  • Philip sends (France) sends troops to arrest Boniface.
    • Boniface died soon after and French influence elects a pope that is more subservient to France.
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Europe in crisis: Schism

Clement V – (1305)

  • Using the excuse of turbulence in Rome, he takes up residence at Avignon.
    • The Pope is the bishop of Rome
    • He is the successor of Saint Peter, considered to be the first bishop of Rome.
    • It damages the image of the papacy for the pontiff to reside elsewhere
  • By the 1330s the popes began to construct a stately palace in Avignon.
europe in crisis schism2
Europe in crisis: Schism
  • The Church begins to adapt to the times as the other growing monarchical states
    • Builds the most sophisticated administrative system in the medieval world
    • Finding new sources of revenue
    • Impose new taxes on the clergy
    • Began to be criticized for the splendor in which they are living in.
  • Catherine of Siena goes on a mission to pope Gregory XI
    • Wants him to move the papacy back to Rome and live more modestly.
    • He does in 1377
europe in crisis schism3
Europe in crisis: Schism

Greg Dies in the next Year

  • College of cardinals meets to elect new pope
    • Roman citizens say that if they elect a Frenchman, they wont leave Rome alive.
    • They elect a Roman – Pope Urban VI
      • Says he will get rid of the French majority
  • French cardinals issue a manifesto claiming they were coerced into voting for a Roman.
    • They vote again and choose a Frenchman – Pope Clement VII
    • Promptly return to Avignon
  • Urban remained in Rome
    • Now we have two popes…
europe in crisis schism4
Europe in crisis: Schism

Urban VI

Clement VII




Southern Italy

  • England
  • Germany
  • Scandinavia
  • Most of the rest of Italy
europe in crisis schism5
Europe in crisis: Schism

The Great Schism

  • Greatly aggravated the abuses of the Church
  • Had to increase taxation
  • Hurt Christian faith in the Church
  • Each line of popes denounced the other as the antichrist… Classy.

How to Fix This Thing?

  • The rise of the conciliar movement
    • Says that the church is only part of society and that they have no authority over temporal matters
    • Church authority is derived from the entire community of the faithful
    • Spiritual matters must decided by a general church council representing all church members
europe in crisis schism6
Europe in crisis: Schism

How Should Call the Council?

  • Cardinals from both camps call one
    • Council of Pisa (1409)
    • Depose both popes and elect Alexander V
    • The other two popes refuse to step down
      • Now we got three popes… You can’t have three popes.

Holy Roman Emperor Calls a New Council

  • Remain popes either retire or are deposed
  • Martin V is elected and Great Schism is over
europe in crisis schism7
Europe in crisis: Schism

The Great Schism

  • The papacy briefly returns to Rome in 1378.
    • Cardinals elect Pope Urban VI, but regret it soon after.
    • They retreat to Anagni and elect a second pope, Clement VII (antipope: one who is opposition to the accepted pope but with a significant claim to that authority).
  • Clement VII moves his papacy back to Avignon.
consolidating power nation building
Consolidating Power: Nation Building


  • North and Eastern Europe form loose alliances
  • The Swiss form a confederation
  • Italy goes from small city-states to five major powers
  • Spain unifies and centralizes under a monarchy
  • France and England strengthen their central gov’ts.

How did the monarchs and republics of the 15th century use their newly consolidated powers?

consolidating power nation building1
Consolidating Power: Nation Building

Hanseatic League (Hanse means “guild”)

  • Mainly north German cities (in the Holy Roman Empire).
  • Came together to protect mutual interests
    • Trade
    • Defense
  • The League linked the Baltic Coast with Russia, Norway, England, and some cities in Italy
  • Usually threatened with war from Norway and Denmark.
    • They shared common armies during times of crisis
france 15 th century1
France (15th century)
  • Before Louis XI (Valois Family) French kings usually only controlled the lands around Paris
  • Burgundy emerged from the 100 Years’ War agriculturally and economically more power than France.
    • Although part of the French royal house, they acted autonomously – acquiring land and building their own armies.
  • Duke of Burgundy dies in 1477, Louis XI seizes Burgundy land and consolidates it into greater France.
    • By end of 15th c. France doubles its size and looks more like the modern day French state.
spain mid 15 th cent1
Spain (mid-15th cent.)
  • Mid-15th cent. Iberian Peninsula was divided into distinct kingdoms.
    • Castile, Aragon, Granada, Navarre, Portugal
    • All were Christian except Granada, which had been a Muslim stronghold for many years.
    • Muslim strength began to weaken by the 11th century
    • Christian kingdoms launched attacks throughout known as the Reconquista.
  • In this atmosphere, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469.
    • Opposition from nobles caused a decade long civil war, the royal houses emerged victorious and named a new Kingdom of Spain.
spain mid 15 th cent2
Spain (mid-15th cent.)

The New Spain

  • The new monarchs reduced the power of the nobility by appointing hidalgos
    • Lesser aristocrats who owe their positions to the state.
  • Ferdinand and Isabella began extending Christianity over the whole peninsula.
  • Turn to driving out Muslims in southern Castile and Granada.
    • Stimulates religious fervor, and inspires loyalty to the king and queen.
    • Pope grants them the right to appoint bishops and abbots.
    • Also they are granted the right to establish their own Inquisition.
spain mid 15 th cent3
Spain (mid-15th cent.)

The New Spain (Inquisition)

  • 1492: Last Muslim stronghold falls in Granada.
  • 1493: All Jews are expelled from Spain
    • About 150,000 people given 4 months to leave.
  • 1502: All Muslims how had not converted are expelled
  • Persecution of all heretics fosters religious unity that strengthens centralization.
england 15 th century
England (15th century)
  • After 100 Years’ War England goes through a civil war.
    • War of the Roses (1455-1485): between rival factions of the royal family for power.
    • House of Lancaster (Red Rose) vs. House of York (White Rose)
    • Compromise was reached in 1485 when a new royal house emerged after a marriage between the two warring families – The Tudors.
    • Henry VII ruled as the first Tudor king in a dynasty that would dominate England through the 16th century.
      • Set up Court of Star Chamber that allowed him to further his power
      • Confiscated noble lands and fortunes to a point where he didn’t need Parliament for financial support.
swiss confederation
Swiss Confederation
  • Switzerland is made up of semi-autonimous provinces or cantons.
    • Each one is under the rubric of the federal state of Switzerland.
  • Much like the Hanseatic League, the cantons organized in order to maintain separation from the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Dominated by wealthy merchants and tradesmen.
    • These were able to supplant the nobility by the 15th cent.
  • Rural communities gain some political importance – no king, duke, or count ever came to rule the confederation.
    • Swiss foot soldiers would act as mercenaries for kings throughout the rest of Europe.
  • Milan
  • Venice
  • Florence
  • Naples
  • Papal States
  • A loose alliance is constructed in 1454 between Milan, Naples, and Florence – Treaty of Lodi
    • Only a few years before Milan and Naples begin to feud
    • This allowed an expanding France (Charles VIII) to cross the alps and invade Milan, then Naples.
    • Florence, Rome, and Naples fold, but Pope Leo X calls Spain and the HRE to defend Italy.
    • Italy becomes a battle ground in Europe, particularly b/t the Valois (France) and the Habsburgs (HRE).
in conclusion 1340 1492
In conclusion (1340-1492)
  • 100 Years’ War (1337)
  • Black Death (1346)
  • Schism in the Church (Avignon & Rome)
  • Uprisings in the countryside
  • Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453)
  • Renaissance spreads out from Italy
    • Rulers use the new arts to glorify themselves
  • Spain is unified by marriage, along with Poland-Lithuania.
  • The Swiss Confederation becomes a permanent entity.