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USC. International Space Station 2010 Utilization, 2015 Evolution & 2020 Life Extension. Improving Consumption Regimen for the ISS Andron Creary ASTE 527 December 15, 2009. Background - History of Space Foods.

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International space station 2010 utilization 2015 evolution 2020 life extension

USC

International Space Station2010 Utilization, 2015 Evolution & 2020 Life Extension

Improving Consumption Regimen for the ISS

Andron Creary

ASTE 527

December 15, 2009


Background history of space foods
Background - History of Space Foods

  • Mercury: compressed and dehydrated bite-sized cubes, freeze-dried powders, and semi-liquids stuffed in aluminum tubes.

(Shown: mushroom, soup, beverage, pineapple juice, chicken pears, strawberries, beef and vegetables, etc.)

*(Figure 1 & Figure 2: courtesy of NASA, retrieved Nov. 8th, 2009)


Background history of space foods1
Background - History of Space Foods

  • Gemini: bite-sized cubes were coated with gelatin to reduce crumbling, and the freeze-dried foods were encased in a special plastic containers to improve packaging, hence improving overall food quality, flavor, moisture content, and spoilage.

  • Improved menu to include: grapes, beef stew, turkey, rice with chicken, chocolate cubes, etc.

  • More variety and improved packaging!!

(Shown: wrapped in cellophane, an airtight and waterproof sealant used to wrap everyday poultry products)

*(Figure 3: courtesy of NASA, retrieved Nov. 8th, 2009)


Background history of space foods2
Background - History of Space Foods

  • Apollo: new packaging method, wet-pack or thermostabilized flexible pouch which retained water content. Astronauts could see and smell what they were eating as well as eat with a spoon for the first time in space.

  • Menu included: coffee, bacon squares, cornflakes, scrambled eggs, cheese crackers, beef sandwich, chocolate pudding, tuna salad, peanut butter, etc.

  • More variety and improved packaging!!

*(Figure 4 & Figure 5: courtesy of NASA, retrieved Nov. 8th, 2009)


Background history of space foods3
Background - History of Space Foods

  • Skylab: the Skylab laboratory had a freezer, refrigerator, warming trays, and a table, just like at home.

    • Compartmentalized food tray!!

  • Space Shuttle: Food variety expanded to 74 different kinds of food and 20 kinds of beverages.

    • Personalize menu based on own needs and wants!!

    • Velcro

*(Figure 6: courtesy of NASA, retrieved Nov. 8th, 2009)


Background history of space foods4
Background - History of Space Foods

  • ISS: primarily, most foods are frozen, refrigerated, or thermostabilized and will not require the addition of water before consumption. Station crews have more than 250 food and beverage items they can select from the U.S. and Russian food systems.

  • Foil and plastic laminate to provide for a longer product shelf life

  • More variety and improved packaging!!

*(Figure 7 & Figure 8: courtesy of NASA, retrieved Nov. 8th, 2009)


Defining the problem why does this matter
Defining the problem – Why does this matter?

  • Rationale: defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring overall crew health, particularly during long-duration missions. With the need to establish domicile on the ISS growing, having a more clear understanding of the crew’s consumption regimen will help to identify whether their is a lacking or an excessive consumption of any particular nutrient as a result of individual choice of food(s). Dietary intake during space flights have not been consistent, rather being extremely low or extremely high, which can greatly compromise nutritional status. For the purpose of maintaining the same body mass in orbit as on Earth, astronauts are told to EAT, EAT, EAT!! Those with more aggressive consumption patterns, recover more easily and rapidly than those with a more conservative diet, however, without limitations, this could lead to other health implications.


Defining the problem why does this matter1
Defining the problem – Why does this matter?

  • Policy: the inherent nature of the ISS bolsters diversity and is a symbol of the great feats that can be accomplished through teamwork, synergy and international freedom. Because the ISS is comprised of multiple international partners, with Russia being the second largest provider of sustenance, attention should be given to addressing diversification of food based on cultural differences. Understanding such differences can provide leverage in developing a revised consumption regimen.

  • Objective: the intent of this proposal is to provide suggestions for redefining the daily nutrient intake by establishing positive constraints to reduce cases were excessive consumption of any particular nutrient could occur of which could contribute to various health ailments.


Measurement analysis can this be proven
Measurement Analysis – Can this be proven?

  • Energy Intake:

  • ISS Expedition 1 - 4: 70.8 +/- 10.8%

  • ISS Expedition 5 -12: 75.6 ± 11.4%

    • Energy intake among U.S. ISS crew members has been increasing in recent years

  • The reason for concern about chronic inadequate energy intake is that weight loss could occur over an extended period, along with possible accelerated muscle and bone loss.

    • Graph indicates a decrease in energy intake, hence body weight was significantly lower after 4- 6 months of spaceflight than before flight

    • What’s the countermeasure: EAT EAT EAT!!

      • While this approach seems plausible, as the data show an increase in the energy intake over the years, self induced health conditions are overlooked.


Measurement analysis can this be proven1
Measurement Analysis – Can this be proven?

  • Two sides to the coin:

    • While maintaining body weight is integral to overall health, it is highly dependent on overall energy intake i.e. caloric intake

    • Energy intake is correlated with intake of other nutrients, and thus if insufficient energy is consumed, then other nutrients are at risk of insufficiency or the polar opposite (excessive energy intake = excessive nutrient intake)

    • Hence, allowing astronauts to EAT, EAT, EAT as a countermeasure to weight loss, implies that they will consume more of any one type of nutrient than another


Measurement analysis can this be proven2
Measurement Analysis – Can this be proven?

  • Comparative data from past missions with emphasis given to particular nutrient consumption, indicate similar trend in consumption of subject nutrients.

    • Increased risk of muscle atrophy and bone loss due to excretion of calcium

    • Increased risk of cardaic arrhythmia due to low potassium content

    • Increased risk of exposure to ammonia due to high nitrogen content that is broken down by bacteria in kidney, this results from excessive protein consumption

  • Electrocardiograms (ECGs) from astronauts on short-duration (space shuttle) and long-duration (ISS and Mir) missions indicated that long-duration, not short-duration, space flight was associated with increased susceptibility of cardiac arrhythmia based on heart-rate-corrected objective test (QTC)

  • Generally speaking, grave fluctuation in nutrient consumption is systemic in nature!


New concept how can we improve
New Concept – How can we improve?

Scientists use require detailed information to

understand the connections between nutrition and

human health during space flight, and to develop

effective Dietary strategies to reduce adverse health

impacts.

  • Two approaches:

    • Revise overall menu-through compartmentalization and establishing constraints on number of nutrients, focusing more on ideal body weight rather than generalizing requirements

      • Streamline requirements with each individuals body morphometry, i.e. shape, size

        • Sodium

        • Calcium

        • Potassium

        • Protein

    • Body type must be system driver!


New concept how can we improve1
New Concept – How can we improve?

  • Replace fat in most food products with a fat substitute- Nutrigras; A stable emulsion of 9% vegetable oil and 62% water formed by steam jet cooking, presented in liquid, gel, or dry form. When constituted, it looks and tastes just like real fat, but it is significantly healthier! direct, pound-for-pound replacement of fat, and since it is only 9% fat, it is possible to produce products that have 90% less fat than their full-fat counterparts. It contains 80% fewer calories per gram than fat.

    • Ex. (1) Ice-cream, beef, pork, chicken, salad dressings, soup sauces can all be replaced with Nutrigras to lower fat content.

    • Nutrigras enhanced products, particularly beef, chicken items reduced in size by approx. 10%. Additional benefit in reducing storage space.

    • Reduced overall cost pre-processing of food products.

    • On average, 45% of caloric intake comes from fat, hence substituting Nutrigras will lower caloric intake, however, providing more healthy diet.


Astronaut regimen monitoring implement control mechanisms
Astronaut Regimen Monitoring – Implement control mechanisms

  • FFQ - continue to utilize food frequency questionnaire to gather estimates of nutrient intake

  • Metabolomics - high resolution mass spectroscopy to allow for real time analysis of nutritional regimen through evaluation of waste (sweat, breath, urine feces)

  • Telemedicine - utilize capabilities offered through ground/in-flight communication to diagnose issues

  • Clinical Ultrasound - small reference cards containing layout coding for equipment controls to facilitate probe placement teams are able to perform functions similar to Earthly counter parts

  • QTC - continued use for real time heart-rate-monitoring


Future studies
Future Studies mechanisms

  • Further product testing on Nutrigraswith respect to uses in other meat products

  • Understanding stomach microbes and their ability to break down nutrients in foods. Such microbes vary within each individual; through bioengineering, particular microbes that are more efficient at breaking down certain foods could be applied intravenously to those astronauts that lack these microbes naturally.

  • Continued studies into vitamin D constitution. The microgravity environment continues to limit the body’s ability to effectively process this particular vitamin

  • Because storage capacity is limited, garbage disposal becomes a concern. Future studies investigating the use of gasification processes of converting waste to usable energy could lead to further advancements in the area of disposal. Energy could possibly be used to provide various types of energy to power various devices

  • Use of biodegradable and edible film used for packing items with limited fatty count, currently under evaluation; preliminary test show meat products


Future studies1
Future Studies mechanisms

the best test specimens, yielding best result in preserving product

  • Need to research traditional medicine to institute complementary procedures. Prevention is better than cure

  • Biodegradable packing material for freshly ISS cultivated vegetables to accommodate lost calcium from urinary excretion during initial space-entry


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