Just War Theory. Origins of the Just War Theory. Western Origin Developed over time Romans affirmed right-authority and proportionality Influenced by Christianity Late middle ages before concept is completed and incorporated. Just War Theory. Best conceived as cultural consensus
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“All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations”
“Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of the individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security”
Commit force wholeheartedly
Stating Clear Objectives
Relationship between Objectives and Forces
What are they and who decides them?
Hard to define, articulate, and legitimize
Not enough forces to deal with a range of potential interests
Always precarious in democracy
May be much easier and save lives if done earlierProblems with Weinberger
Four reasons why it was in the best interest:
1. Right to conduct rescue missions to protect U.S. military
personnel, nationals and installations
2. Right of self-determination over Noriega’s government
claims of sovereignty
3. Asserted legal right to protect its territorial integrity
against the shipment of narcotics
4. Right to enforce provision of the Panama Canal Treaty
Where the goals clearly defined both
politically and militarily?
Prior to the invasion, the State Department issued a press
guidance outlining the political goals of the operation. All goals
were met and as previously stated the military goals were
achieved in matter of hours.
Was in fact the invasion a last resort?
The invasion was not an early or precipitous one
Classic Theory continually reassessed
Probability of Success
Proportionality of Ends
Proportionately of means
Defined Goals and Objectives
Ethics for the Military Leader, 2nd edition
Fundamentals of Naval Leadership
pages 25-1 to 25-27, and 27-1 to 27-3
Ethics and Moral Reasoning for Military Leaders
Lesson 21: pages 21-9 to 21-32
Case Study: pages 21 to 57