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Diseases of Circulatory System. Hypertension. Prof. Shen-Jiang Hu. 讲授目的和要求. 掌握高血压的诊断标准、危险分层和治疗原则。 熟悉降压药物的种类及特点;降压药物的选择和联合用药。 了解高血压的患病率、病因、发病机制和并发症;以及较常见的几种继发性高血压。. 教材及参考书. 1 、 《 内科学 》 ,王吉耀主编,人民卫生出版社 2 、 《 实用高血压学 》 余振球等主编,科学出版社 3 、 《 现代内科学英语精要 》 王吉耀、刘文忠摘编,人民卫生出版社. 教学网站网址.

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Diseases of Circulatory System

Hypertension

Prof. Shen-Jiang Hu


讲授目的和要求

  • 掌握高血压的诊断标准、危险分层和治疗原则。

  • 熟悉降压药物的种类及特点;降压药物的选择和联合用药。

  • 了解高血压的患病率、病因、发病机制和并发症;以及较常见的几种继发性高血压。


教材及参考书

1、《内科学》,王吉耀主编,人民卫生出版社

2、《实用高血压学》余振球等主编,科学出版社

3、《现代内科学英语精要》王吉耀、刘文忠摘编,人民卫生出版社


教学网站网址

  • 《内科学》校级精品课程:http://10.15.11.50/kj/298/

  • 《内科学》省级精品课程:http://10.15.11.61/eln/200705111443400125/index.jsp?cosid=1033


Blood Pressure has a unimodal distribution

in the Population


“Hypertension may be an important compensatory mechanism which should not be tampered with, even were it certain that we could control it.”

White PD, 1931

“高血压可能是一个重要的代偿机制,即使我们能够控制它,也不应该处理它。”

“The greatest danger to a man with high blood pressure lies in its discovery, because then some fool is certain to try to reduce it.”

Hay J, 1931


1970年

认识到高血压与卒中的关系

人类对高血压认识的历史

2003年

JNC VII:降压达标对减少各类患者的心血管事件至关重要

1980年

世界卫生组织将“降压要达标”作为高血压日的宣传口号

JNC II将舒张压作为确诊高血压的和治疗建议的基础

2006年

1961年

1992年

2005年

Framingham心脏研究:最早认识到高血压与心脏病的关系

JNC V收缩压与舒张压同等重要

中国高血压治疗指南更新:降压药物治疗目标在于,降低血压使其达到相应病人的目标水平

1978年

世界卫生组织首次提出高血压阶梯治疗方案


Complications of Hypertension

Heart Failure

LV Hypertrophy

MI

Atrial Fibrillation

Hypertensive Encephalopathy

Aortic Dissection

Hypertension

CHD

Dementia

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Chronic Renal failure

Ischemic

Cerebral

Infarction


The Relationship between Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Events


Definition of Hypertension

  • Hypertension is a clinical syndrome, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg.

  • Hypertension should be considered a major risk factor for an array of cardiovascular and related disease as well as diseases leading to a marked increase in cardiovascular risk. 。


黑龙江

吉林

辽宁

河北

北京

天津

新疆

内蒙古

山东

陕西

宁夏

青海

江苏

甘肃

河南

山西

安徽

上海

西藏

湖北

浙江

四川

江西

湖南

福建

贵州

广东

云南

广西

台湾

海南

Hypertension in China(1991)

  • ≥15%

  • ≥10%~14.9%

  • <10%


我国城市1999年前10位死亡原因

死亡原因 死亡率占总死亡死亡原因 死亡率占总死亡

1/10万%1/10万 %

循环系病226.138.5 内分泌,代谢

- 脑血管病127.221.6营养,免疫病16.92.9

- 心脏病98.916.8 泌尿生殖病 8.91.5

恶性肿瘤40.523.9 精神病6.71.1

呼吸系病81.713.9 神经病5.30.9

损伤,中毒36.96.3

消化系病17.93.0

中国1999年卫生统计


我国农村1999年前10位死亡原因

死亡原因死亡专率占总死亡死亡原因死亡率占总死亡

1/10万%1/10万%

循环系病186.630.8泌尿生殖病9.21.5

- 脑血管病 111.618.4* 新生儿病810.31.3

- 心脏病 75.012.4(每10万出生)

呼吸系病133.722.0肺结核7.91.3

恶性肿瘤111.618.4内分泌,代谢

损伤,中毒67.011.0营养,免疫病6.41.0

消化系病24.24.0

中国1999年卫生统计


Trends in Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in China

Awareness(%) Treatment(%) Control(%)

1991 26.6 12.2 2.9

2002 30.2 24.7 6.1

中国心血管健康多中心合作研究


Etiology

  • The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is multifactorial.

  • Genetic factors play an important role. Children with one- or two-hypertensive parents have higher blood pressures.

  • Environmental factors also are significant. Increased salt intake has long been incriminated as a pathogenic factor in essential hypertension. It alone is probably not sufficient to elevate blood pressure to abnormal levels; a combination of too much salt plus a genetic predisposition is required.


Etiology


Pathogenesis

  • Sympathetic nervous systemhyperactivity. It is most apparent in younger hypertensives, who may exhibit tachycardia and an elevated cardiac output. However, correlations between plasma catecholamines and blood pressure are poor.


Pathogenesis

  • Renin-angiotensin system. Renin acts on angiotensinogen to cleave of the ten-amino-acid peptide angiotensin I. This peptide is then acted upon by angiotensin-converting enzyme to create the eight-amino-acid peptide angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor and a major stimulant of aldosterone release from the adrenal glands.


Pathogenesis

  • Defect of natriuresis. Hypertensive patients exhibit a diminished ability to excrete a sodium load. This defect may result in increased plasma volume and hypertension.


Pathogenesis

  • Intracellular sodium and calcium. An increase in intracellular Na+ may lead to increased intracellular Ca2 + concentrations as a result of facilitated exchange. This could explain the increase in vascular smooth muscle tone.


Pathogenesis

  • Exacerbating factors. The best-documented is obesity, which is associated with an increase in intravascular volume and an elevated cardiac output. Some hypertensives respond to high salt intake with substantial blood pressure increases. Excessive use of alcohol also raises blood pressure. Cigarette smoking acutely raises blood pressure.


Pathology

  • Heart. Left ventricular hypertrophy may cause or facilitate many cardiac complications of hypertension, including congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, and sudden death.


Pathology

  • Brain. Hypertension is the major predisposing cause of stroke, especially intracerebral hemorrhage but also ischemic cerebral infarction.


Pathology

  • Kidney. Chronic hypertension leads to nephrosclerosis, a common cause of renal insufficiency.


Clinical Findings

Symptoms:

  • Elevations in pressure are often intermittent early. Even in established case, the blood pressure fluctuates widely in response to emotional stress and physical activity.


Clinical Findings

Symptoms:

  • Mild to moderated essential hypertension is usually associated with normal health and well-being for many years.


Clinical Findings

Symptoms:

  • Suboccipital pulsating headaches, but any type of headache, may occur. Accelerated hypertension is associated with somnolence, confusion, palpitation.


Signs:

  • High blood pressure.

  • Physical findings depend upon the duration and severity, and the degree of effect on target organs.

  • A loud aortic second sound and an early systolic ejection click may occur.


Definition and Classification of Blood Pressure Levels in different Country


Stratification of CV Risk

Stratification of CV Risk in four categories. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; CV: Cardiovascular events; HT: hypertension. Low, moderate, high and very high risk refer to 10 year risk of a CV fatal or non-fatal event. The term “added” indicates that in all categories risk is greater than average. OD: subclinical organ damage; MS: metabolic syndrome. The dashed line indicates how definition of hypertension may be variable, depending on the level of total CV risk.


Estimate total cardiovascular risk

  • Framingham Study:Risk for cardiovascular events over 10 years

  • Very high High Moderate Low

  • >30% 20-30% 15-20% <15%

  • SCORE charts:the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease over 10 years

  • Very high High Moderate Low

  • >8% 5-8% 4-5% <4%


Factors influencing prognosis


Factors influencing prognosis


Management


Goals of treatment


Goals of treatment


- 4/3 mmHg

N=20 888

总死亡

心衰

CHD

主要CV事件

卒中

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

14%

15%

15%

16%

23%

降压是硬道理!微小的血压差异,显著的心血管收益

治疗组间的血压差异与卒中、CHD、主要CVD事件、CVD死亡及总死亡率风险的差异直接相关

Lancet 2003;362:1527-45


Management

Lifestyle Modification

  • Weight Loss

  • Sodium Restriction

  • Calcium and Potassium Supplementation

  • High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet

  • Alcohol Moderation

  • Exercise


When to initiate antihypertensive treatment

  • Based on two criteria:

  • The level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  • The level of total cardiovascular risk


Initiation of antihypertensive treatment


Choice of antihypertensive drugs

  • Five major classes of antihypertensive agents – thiazide diuretics, calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and β-blockers – are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, alone or in combination.


Choice of antihypertensive drugs


Choice of antihypertensive drugs


Choice of antihypertensive drugs


Antihypertensive treatment: Preferred drugs


Antihypertensive treatment: Preferred drugs


Antihypertensive treatment: Preferred drugs


Compelling and possible contraindications to use of antihypertensive drugs


Monotherapy versus combination therapy

  • Monotherapy could be the initial treatment for a mild BP elevation with a low or moderate total cardiovascular risk.


Monotherapy versus combination therapy

  • A combination of two drugs at low doses should be preferred as first step treatment when initial BP is in the grade 2 or 3 range or total cardiovascular risk is high or very high.


Monotherapy versus combination therapy

  • In several patients BP control is not achieved by two drugs, and a combination of three of more drugs is required.


Monotherapy versus combination therapy strategies


Possible combinations between some classes of antihypertensive drugs

Diuretics

β-blockers

ACE inhibitors

α-blockers

Calcium antagonists

Angiotesin II antagonists

Journal of Hypertension 2007, 25:1105–1187.


复习思考题

1、中国血压水平的定义和分级?

2、如何进行高血压的危险分层?

3、高血压的治疗原则是什么?


Thanks for your attention!


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