Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine@astro umass edu
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Physical Geology Laboratory Tuesday Tom Burbine [email protected] Course. Course Website: http://blogs.umass.edu/tburbine/ Textbook: Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology, 8 th Edition (2009) Busch You also will need a calculator that you will bring to class. Virtual office hours.

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Physical Geology Laboratory Tuesday Tom Burbine [email protected]

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Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine@astro umass edu

Physical Geology LaboratoryTuesdayTom [email protected]


Course

Course

  • Course Website:

    • http://blogs.umass.edu/tburbine/

  • Textbook:

    • Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology, 8th Edition (2009) Busch

    • You also will need a calculator that you will bring to class.


Virtual office hours

Virtual office hours

  • You can IM me at tomburbine on AOL


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

  • Student: and who are u? lolStudent: u gotta answer cuz i asked first both timestomburbine: why r u Iming meStudent: cuz u added my sn for some reason so i wana know whytomburbine: sn?Student: screen name? Student: loltomburbine: no I didntStudent: ok..tomburbine: do u live in massachusetts?Student: do u?tomburbine: do u live in cambridge?Student: notomburbine: is it snowing?Student: yeatomburbine: do u have a xnga?Student: no joke who the f**k are ya?Student: yes i do live in MAtomburbine: i never heard of u until u Imed meStudent: then how the h**l did u know i lived in MA?


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

  • Student: and yes i do go to umasstomburbine: r u in astronomy 100Student: how do u know all this?tomburbine: because I am the professorStudent: OHHHHH OOOPS!tomburbine: i think u must have added meStudent: omg loltomburbine: and then forgot who I wasStudent: ya i didStudent: sorry for all that tomburbine: my name is my screen nametomburbine: seem familar nowStudent: didnt mean to use language but it happenedtomburbine: no problemtomburbine: funnyStudent: hehtomburbine: i actually dont know who u rStudent: good thing we got an exta 2 days for the hwtomburbine: yestomburbine: u can Im me anytimetomburbine: and Student: ill tell ya if u promiss not to fail metomburbine: I cant add my name to ur aimtomburbine: only u cantomburbine: i am fine not knowingStudent: okStudent: well i have to go ill cya on thursday. take caretomburbine: bye!


Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics

  • Plate Tectonics describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere


Continental drift hypothesis

Continental Drift Hypothesis

  • Alfred Wegener (1915) thought that all continents were part of a single supercontinent called Pangea


Pangea

Pangea

  • Pangea - One large supercontinent

http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/pangea.gif


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

  • Principles of Plate Tectonics

  • 1. The surface of the Earth is composed of lithospheric plates that are in constant motion.

  • The plates move in response to plastic flow in the athenosphere.

  • Motion in the asthenosphere is caused by convection driven by the Earth’s internal heat.

  • The internal heat comes from radioactive decay and the latent heat from the Earth’s formation.


Plate tectonics1

Plate Tectonics

  • Earth has a thin rigid lithosphere that is underlain by a plastic asthenosphere

  • Seafloor crust is created along mid-ocean ridges where magma upwells from the mantle

  • Ocean basins are generally younger than continents

  • Seaflloor spreads until it encounters a trench and descends back into the mantle


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

  • Rocks can deform and flow

  • Easier for rock to deform and flow when it is warmer


Heating of planet

Heating of Planet


Lithosphere

Lithosphere

  • Lithosphere is a planet’s outer layer of cool and relatively rigid rock

  • Asthenosphere is the region in the upper mantle characterized by low-density, semiplastic (or partially molten) rock material chemically similar to the overlying lithosphere


Three types of plate tectonic boundaries

Three Types of Plate Tectonic Boundaries

  • Divergent – plates move apart, space is filled with molten magma

  • Convergent – plates collide

  • Transform – plates slide horizontally past each other


Divergent plate boundary

Divergent plate boundary


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

Convergent Plate Boundary


Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine astro umass

Transform Boundaries


Magma

Magma

  • Magma – a mixture of molten rock, volatiles, and solids

  • Lava is magma that erupts on the surface


Melting point

Melting Point

  • Melting point – temperature that crystals of a given mineral melt

  • All minerals have different melting points

  • Partial melting – part of a rock melts before another rock


Geothermal gradient

Geothermal Gradient

  • Increasing temperature with depth


Pressure

Pressure

  • Pressure is force per unit area

  • Pressure increases as you go deeper in Earth because of the weight of the surrounding rock


Pressure1

Pressure

  • Raising the confining pressure increases the melting point of the rock

  • Lowering the confining pressure lowers the melting point of a rock


P t pressure temperature diagram

P-T (pressure-temperature) diagram


Hot spots

Hot Spots


Any questions

Any Questions?


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