Physical geology laboratory tuesday tom burbine tomburbine@astro umass edu
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Physical Geology Laboratory Tuesday Tom Burbine [email protected] Course. Course Website: Textbook: Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology, 8 th Edition (2009) Busch You also will need a calculator that you will bring to class. Virtual office hours.

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  • Course Website:


  • Textbook:

    • Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology, 8th Edition (2009) Busch

    • You also will need a calculator that you will bring to class.

Virtual office hours
Virtual office hours

  • You can IM me at tomburbine on AOL

  • Student: and who are u? lolStudent: u gotta answer cuz i asked first both timestomburbine: why r u Iming meStudent: cuz u added my sn for some reason so i wana know whytomburbine: sn?Student: screen name? Student: loltomburbine: no I didntStudent: ok..tomburbine: do u live in massachusetts?Student: do u?tomburbine: do u live in cambridge?Student: notomburbine: is it snowing?Student: yeatomburbine: do u have a xnga?Student: no joke who the f**k are ya?Student: yes i do live in MAtomburbine: i never heard of u until u Imed meStudent: then how the h**l did u know i lived in MA?

  • Student: and yes i do go to umasstomburbine: r u in astronomy 100Student: how do u know all this?tomburbine: because I am the professorStudent: OHHHHH OOOPS!tomburbine: i think u must have added meStudent: omg loltomburbine: and then forgot who I wasStudent: ya i didStudent: sorry for all that tomburbine: my name is my screen nametomburbine: seem familar nowStudent: didnt mean to use language but it happenedtomburbine: no problemtomburbine: funnyStudent: hehtomburbine: i actually dont know who u rStudent: good thing we got an exta 2 days for the hwtomburbine: yestomburbine: u can Im me anytimetomburbine: and Student: ill tell ya if u promiss not to fail metomburbine: I cant add my name to ur aimtomburbine: only u cantomburbine: i am fine not knowingStudent: okStudent: well i have to go ill cya on thursday. take caretomburbine: bye!

Plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics

  • Plate Tectonics describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere

Continental drift hypothesis
Continental Drift Hypothesis

  • Alfred Wegener (1915) thought that all continents were part of a single supercontinent called Pangea


  • Pangea - One large supercontinent

  • Principles of Plate Tectonics

  • 1. The surface of the Earth is composed of lithospheric plates that are in constant motion.

  • The plates move in response to plastic flow in the athenosphere.

  • Motion in the asthenosphere is caused by convection driven by the Earth’s internal heat.

  • The internal heat comes from radioactive decay and the latent heat from the Earth’s formation.

Plate tectonics1
Plate Tectonics

  • Earth has a thin rigid lithosphere that is underlain by a plastic asthenosphere

  • Seafloor crust is created along mid-ocean ridges where magma upwells from the mantle

  • Ocean basins are generally younger than continents

  • Seaflloor spreads until it encounters a trench and descends back into the mantle


  • Lithosphere is a planet’s outer layer of cool and relatively rigid rock

  • Asthenosphere is the region in the upper mantle characterized by low-density, semiplastic (or partially molten) rock material chemically similar to the overlying lithosphere

Three types of plate tectonic boundaries
Three Types of Plate Tectonic Boundaries

  • Divergent – plates move apart, space is filled with molten magma

  • Convergent – plates collide

  • Transform – plates slide horizontally past each other


  • Magma – a mixture of molten rock, volatiles, and solids

  • Lava is magma that erupts on the surface

Melting point
Melting Point

  • Melting point – temperature that crystals of a given mineral melt

  • All minerals have different melting points

  • Partial melting – part of a rock melts before another rock

Geothermal gradient
Geothermal Gradient

  • Increasing temperature with depth


  • Pressure is force per unit area

  • Pressure increases as you go deeper in Earth because of the weight of the surrounding rock


  • Raising the confining pressure increases the melting point of the rock

  • Lowering the confining pressure lowers the melting point of a rock