Observational Designs. Oncology Journal Club April 26, 2002. Presented Article.
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Oncology Journal Club
April 26, 2002
“Plasma Selenium Level Before Diagnosis and the Risk of Prostate Cancer Development”. J.D. Brooks, E.J. Metter, D.W. Chan, L.J. Sokoll, P. Landis, W.G. Nelson, D. Muller, R. Andres, H.B. Carter. The Journal of Urology, v. 166, pp. 2034-2038.
Study Design: nested case-control study.
Disease: prostate cancer
Exposure: selenium intake
WHO IS BEING COMPARED?
COHORT: EXPOSED VS. UNEXPOSED
CASE-CONTROL: DISEASED VS. NON-DISEASED
Cohort studies are expensive
Cohort studies can (usually) measure exposure precisely
In cohort studies, disease prevalence can be measured
Cohort studies are impractical for study of rare disease.
Can assess temporal relationship
Case control studies are cheap
Case control studies tend to rely on recall for exposure measure
Case control studies don’t allow for measurement of disease prevalence
Case control studies are efficient in rare diseases
Can’t always assess temporal relationship
What is the probability of getting diseased if you are exposed as compared to unexposed?
What is the probability of having been exposed if you have the disease compared to not having the disease?
Relative Risk (RR):
Odds Ratio (OR):
Odds Ratio (OR):
Logistic regression allows us to do 2x2 table analysis, and much more:
Let y = 1 if prostate cancer, 0 if not
Let x = 1 if high selenium, 0 if low (assume binary for now)
What is difference between an “exposed” and “unexposed” pair of individuals?
1. Exercise and selenium: what if selenium is strongly associated with prostate cancer? People who exercise tend to eat better diets, rich in selenium. If we consider the association between exercise and prostate cancer without adjusting for selenium, then we may falsely conclude that exercise and prostate cancer are associated.
2. Coffee and lung cancer: A case-control study found a strong association between coffee and lung cancer. However, after adjusting for smoking, the association “went away.” Why? People who self-select smoking also tend to self-select coffee consumption