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Today’s Plan. Naming Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV Compounds Naming Acids. #’s 37,38,51,53,60,72-74. Type I. Ionic compounds (monatomic cations & anions) Examples – Li 2 O = lithium oxide AlN = ???. Type II. Ionic compounds

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Today’s Plan

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Today s plan

Today’s Plan

  • Naming Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV Compounds

  • Naming Acids

#’s 37,38,51,53,60,72-74


Type i

Type I

  • Ionic compounds

    (monatomic cations & anions)

  • Examples –

    • Li2O = lithium oxide

    • AlN = ???


Type ii

Type II

  • Ionic compounds

    (variable charge cations and monatomic anions)

  • Examples –

    • CuCl = copper (I) chloride

    • PbS = ???


Type ii variable charge

Type II – Variable Charge

  • Same as Type I and Type IV except you have to indicate what charge the variable charge ion has!

  • For example:

    • FeO=iron (II) oxide (or ferrous oxide)

    • Fe2O3=iron (III) oxide (or ferric oxide)

    • SnH2=tin (II) hydride (or stannous hydride)

    • SnBr4=tin (IV) bromide (or stannic bromide)


Type iii

Type III

  • Covalent compounds with only nonmetals

    Key… these are not compounds of ions! That is why the rules are so different.

  • Examples –

    • P3O5 = triphosphoruspentoxide

    • SO = ???


Prefixes

Prefixes!


Some type iii tips

Some TYPE III tips…

  • Never use “mono” at the beginning of the compound name, if there’s only 1 of the first atom no prefix is necessary.

  • If the vowel at the end of the prefix plus the vowel at the start of the element name is awkward, (e.g. mono- and oxide) the vowel on the prefix gets dropped. (monoxide, tetroxide)


Name no

Name NO

  • Name 1st element: nitrogen

  • Name 2nd element like an anion: oxide

  • Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms

    • 1 nitrogen: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix

    • 1 oxygen: mono-

    • nitrogen monoxide


Name bf 3

Name BF3

  • Name the first element using the element name: boron

  • Name the second element as if it were an anion: fluoride (instead of fluorine)

  • Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms:

    • 1 boron: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix

    • 3 fluorine: tri-

    • boron trifluoride


Type iv

Type IV

  • Ionic compounds

    (polyatomic ions–mostly anions)

  • Examples –

    • K2SO4 = potassium sulfate

    • (NH4)2CO3 = ???


Two super awesome websites for polyatomic ion practice

Two super awesome websites for polyatomic ion practice!

  • Charge practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyions1.html

  • Name/formula practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyions.html

  • (Really tough ion/compound practice: http://www.chemfiles.com/flash/polyatomic_ions.html)


Acid naming our last type

Acid Naming (our last type!)

  • Acids = molecules that produce H+ ions in water

  • First recognized for the sour taste of their solutions: e.g. citric acid in lemons and limes is responsible for that sour taste

  • An acid is an anion with one or more H+cations bonded to it that it can let go of when dissolved in water.


Acid naming rule 1

Acid Naming Rule #1

If the anion does NOT contain oxygen…

HCl

1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion:

chloride

hydrochloric acid

How do you know it’s an acid?


More practice acid naming rule 1

More Practice…Acid Naming Rule #1

If the anion does NOT contain oxygen…

HCN

1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion:

cyanide

hydrocyanic acid

Is it an acid if it’s not dissolved in water?


Remember

Remember…

Acids are ionic compounds beginning with H that dissolve in water to form a solution that we call an acid.

They are not often found/used in their solid form so we prefer to name them as acids in their solution form.


Acid naming rule 2

Acid Naming Rule #2

If the anion DOES contain oxygen…

H2SO4

2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix:

-icwhen the anion ends in –ate

-ouswhen anion names in –ite

hydrogen sulfate should be called……sulfuric acid


Acid naming rule 21

Acid Naming Rule #2

If the anion DOES contain oxygen…

HNO2

2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix:

-icwhen the anion ends in –ate

-ouswhen anion names in –ite

hydrogen nitrite should be called……nitrous acid


Acid naming rule 3

Acid Naming Rule #3

If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…

perchlorate

chlorate

chlorite

hypochlorite

HClO4

HClO3

HClO2

HClO

perchloricacid

chloric acid

chlorousacid

hypochlorousacid

per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”

hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”


More practice acid naming rule 3

More Practice…Acid Naming Rule #3

If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…

perbromate

bromate

bromite

hypobromite

HBrO4

HBrO3

HBrO2

HBrO

perbromicacid

bromicacid

bromousacid

hypobromousacid

per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”

hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”


Acid naming summary

Acid Naming Summary

  • NO Oxygen

  • Always:

    Hydro[anion root]ic

    acid

  • CONTAINS Oxygen

  • What is the key anion?

  • How many oxygens does it have compared to the “-ate” or “-ite”?

    (prefix)[anion root](suffix)

    acid

hydrofluoric acid, hydrosulfuric acid, hydronitric acid

Ex’s: HF, HS, HN

Ex’s: HNO3,HNO2,HNO, HNO4

nitric acid, nitrous acid, hyponitrous acid, pernitric acid


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