ACCT 2302
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 21

ACCT 2302 Fundamentals of Accounting II Spring 2011 Lecture 18 Professor Jeff Yu PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 97 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

ACCT 2302 Fundamentals of Accounting II Spring 2011 Lecture 18 Professor Jeff Yu. Review: Relevant Cost Analysis. A Two-Step Process: Step 1: Eliminate costs and benefits that DO NOT differ between alternatives.

Download Presentation

ACCT 2302 Fundamentals of Accounting II Spring 2011 Lecture 18 Professor Jeff Yu

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

ACCT 2302

Fundamentals of Accounting II

Spring 2011

Lecture 18

Professor Jeff Yu


Review relevant cost analysis

Review: Relevant Cost Analysis

A Two-Step Process:

  • Step 1: Eliminate costs and benefits that DO NOT differ between alternatives.

    Two broad categories of costs are NEVER relevant in decision making: (1) Sunk costs; (2) Future costs that do not differ between alternatives.

    • Step 2: Use the remaining costs and benefits that DO differ between alternatives in making the decision.


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Review: equipment replacement decision

  • In deciding whether to replace or keep existing equipment, consider the following relevant costs:

  • Purchase or rental costs of new equipment

  • Disposal value of old equipment

  • Cost savings from using the more efficient new equipment instead of the old equipment


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Review: Decision to Add/Drop Segments

  • Relevant factors to consider:

  • Segment margin

  • The interaction between segments

  • Recall: Common fixed costs are unavoidable, hence irrelevant in the decision. Traceable fixed costs are avoidable.


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Review: Transfer Pricing decision

  • Buyer: Max. transfer price = best price from outside suppliers

  • Seller: Min. transfer price = VC per unit + Opportunity cost per unit

  • Opportunity cost per unit = Total CM on lost sales / # of units transferred

  • If idle capacity = 0, then opportunity cost per unit = CM per unit,

  • minimum transfer price =Market price

  • (2) If idle capacity >= units transferred, then opportunity cost per unit = 0,

  • minimum transfer price =VC per unit

  • (3) If 0< idle capacity <= units transferred, then

  • min. transfer price =w*VC per unit + (1-w)*Market price

  • where the weight: w = idle capacity ÷ units transferred.


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Review: Decision to Accept/Reject a Special Order

  • Similar to Transfer pricing:

  • With ample idle capacity . . .

    • Relevant costs usually will be the variable costs associated with the special order, plus any special processing cost or costs of special tools required.

  • Without enough idle capacity . . .

    • Relevant costs: the costs above, plus the opportunity cost of using the firm’s facilities for the special order.


Make or buy decision

“Make or Buy” Decision

The basic make-or-buy question is whether a company should make its own parts to be used in its products or buy them from vendors.

DECISION RULE

  • Step 1: calculate the relevant costs of making each unit of the part after eliminating sunk costs and future costs that do not differ between making or buying the parts.

  • Step 2: Compare the unit cost calculated from step 1 with the price offered by outside suppliers.

    Note: watch out for any relevant opportunity costs.


Practice problem

Practice Problem

Essex manufactures part 4A that is currently used in one of its products. The unit cost to make this part is:

The equipment used to make part 4A has no resale value and no alternative use. General overhead is allocated regardless of Essex making or buying part 4A. The $30 total unit cost is based on 20,000 parts produced each year. An outside supplier has offered to provide the 20,000 parts at a cost of $25 per part. Should we accept the supplier’s offer?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

Motor Company manufactures 10,000 units of Part M-l each year for use in its production. The following total costs were reported last year:

Valve Company has offered to sell Motor 10,000 units of Part M-l for $18 per unit. If Motor accepts the offer, some of the facilities presently used to manufacture Part M-l could be rented to a third party at an annual rental of $25,000. Additionally, $4 per unit of the fixed overhead applied to Part M-l would be eliminated.

Q: Should Motor Company accept Valve Company's offer, and why?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Optimal Use of Limited Resources

Let’s take a look at another decision faced by many firms:

We have a limited number of machine hours in which to produce our products. How much of each product should we produce?

W


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Optimal Use of Limited Resources

  • A limited (constrained) resource is an item essential to production, but available only in a limited quantity.

    • As a result, the production (or sale) of a product (or service) is constrained.

  • When facing a limited resource constraint, the firm will maximize profit to produce the product with the highest contribution margin PER UNIT OF SCARCE RESOURCE rather than the product with the highest CM per unit.


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

A company has two products: a plain cellular phone and a fancier cellular phone with many special features:

PlainFancy

PhonePhone

Selling price $ 80 $ 120

VC per unit 64 84

CM per unit 16 36

CM ratio 20% 30%

Suppose annual demand for phones of both types is unlimited, and managers identified labor hours to be the limited resource: only 10,000 hours are available next year.If in one hour plant workers can make either three plain phones or one fancy phone, which phone should be produced to maximize the profit?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

  • Croson Co. produces 3 products with the following data:

  • Q: If machine hour is constrained and demand for all 3 products is unlimited, in which order of priority will you produce these 3 products?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

  • Wood Co. produces 3 products with the following data:

  • If only 1,800 labor hours (LH) are available next month and only 800 units of each product can be sold each month, what is the maximum amount of contribution margin that Wood Co. can generate next month?


Joint products joint costs

Joint Products & Joint Costs

Two or more products produced from a common input are called joint products.

The point in the manufacturing process where each joint product can be recognized as a separate product is called the split-off point.

Joint costs are costs incurred up to the split-off point and are usually allocated to the end products proportionate to their sales value.

Costs incurred after the point of split-off are called Separate Product Costs.


Joint products example

Joint Products Example

Joint

Costs

Final

Sale

Separate

Processing

Oil

Common

Production

Process

Joint

Input

Final

Sale

Gasoline

Separate

Processing

Final

Sale

Chemicals

Split-Off

Point

Separate

Product Costs


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Decision: Sell or Process Further?

Managers frequently face decisions of whether to sell joint products at split-off or to process some products further.

The decision to process further (beyond the split-off point) should be made based on each product’s incremental costs and incremental revenues ONLY!

Decision Rule: process further only when the incremental revenue from such processing exceeds the incremental processing cost incurred after the split-off point.

Joint costs are irrelevant to the decision. Why?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

Cocoa butter

sales value $750 for

1,500 pounds

Cocoa beans

costing $500

per ton

Joint Production

process costing

$600 per ton

Split-off point

Separate

process

costing

$800

Cocoa powder

sales value

$500 for

500 pounds

Total joint cost:

$1,100 per ton

Instant cocoa mix

sales value

$2,000 for

500 pounds

Q: Should the cocoa powder be sold now or processed into instant cocoa mix?


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Practice Problem

  • Dodd Co. makes 2 joint products with the following data:

  • Q: (1) what is the profit (loss) from processing Y further?

  • (2) If managers decide to sell 1,000 units of product X at the split-off point, what should be the minimum selling price?


For next class

For Next Class

  • Review Present Value concepts

  • Start Capital Budgeting

  • Attempt the assigned HW problems.


Acct 2302 fundamentals of accounting ii spring 2011 lecture 18 professor jeff yu

Homework Problem

  • WACC Co. produces 3 products with the following data:

  • If only 1,300 machine hours are available next month and only 200 units of each product can be sold each month, what is the maximum amount of contribution margin that WACC Co. can generate next month?


  • Login