Ias 2193 ict driven revolution in society
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IAS 2193 ICT Driven Revolution in Society. P a rt 5: Cyber Liberalization. Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, UNISEL . Cyber Liberalization. In general, liberalization refers to:

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Ias 2193 ict driven revolution in society

IAS 2193ICT Driven Revolution in Society

Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, UNISEL


Cyber liberalization

IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

Cyber Liberalization

  • In general, liberalizationrefers to:

    • A relaxation of previousgovernmentrestrictions, usually in such areas of social, political and economic policy.

    • In some contexts this process or concept is often, but not always, referred to as deregulation(the process of removing or reducing regulations).

  • Liberalizationof autocratic regimes may lead to democratization.


Hacking hacker

IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

Hacking & Hacker

  • In computerprogramming, 'hacker' means:

    - A programmer who hacks or reaches a goal by employing a series of modifications to exploit or extend existing code or resources.

  • In computersecurity, hacker translates to:

    • A person abletoexploit a system or gainunauthorized access through skill and tactics.


Hacking hacker1

IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

Hacking & Hacker

  • Others define hacker as a person who exploresintosoftware more deeply than an average PC user.

  • Hackers are often seen as "Whitehats" or "Blackhats.”

    • White hat hackers helpfixbadlywrittensoftware programs and write new programs for the greatergood of the computing community.


Hacking hacker2

IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

Hacking & Hacker

  • Black hatsmodify or create software for criminalpurposes such as stealing your passwords, your identity, your bank account or simply to slow the Internet down to no one's amusement but themselves.

  • Some hackers are white and black hats, as they see fit, and are known as "Grayhats".


  • Cracker

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cracker

    • A cracker is one who engagesin one or more of the following:

      • Breaksinto a computer system;

      • Figures out ways to bypasssecurity or licenseprotection in software;

      • Intentionallybreaches computer security.

    • Contrary to popular belief, Cracker is not synonymous with Hacker.


    Cracker1

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cracker

    • The term was coined in the mid-80s by hackers who wanted to:

      • Differentiate themselves from individuals whose sole purpose is to sneak through security systems.

    • Whereas crackers sole aim is to:

      • Break into secure systems.

    • Hackers are more interested in gainingknowledge about computer systems and possibly using this knowledge for "playful" pranks.


    Anonymity

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Anonymity

    • Derived from the Greekword meaning;

      • Without a name or name-less.

      • A condition in which an individual's true identity is unknown.

    • “Anonymity”: notbeingidentifiable within this set.

    • If it is not identifiable, then the element is said to be "anonymous”.


    Ias 2193 ict driven revolution in society

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Spam

    • Broadlysend unsolicited, unwanted, irrelevant, or inappropriate messages, especially commercial advertising in mass quantities.

      • Noun: electronic "junkmail”.

    • Many times, spam e-mail lists are created by "harvesting" e-mail addresses from discussion boards and groups, chat rooms, IRC, and web pages.


    Ias 2193 ict driven revolution in society

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Spam

    • Spam is developedbecause:

      • Extremelycheap compared to printed direct-mail advertising.

    • Some businesses and organizations compile or buyhugelists of email addresses and sent their unsolicited messages.


    Online scams

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Online Scams

    • Cheat unsuspecting people online

    • Example:

      • Auction Fraud:

        • Seller lists anything they want to sell.

        • Buyers bid.

        • Auction site gets a percentage.

    • Problems:

      • Some sellers do not send the items people paid for, or they send inferior goods that do not meet the online description.


    Online scams1

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Online Scams

    • StockFraud:

      • The Web reaches a huge audience virtually immediately. It is ideal for spreading rumors.

      • One can buy a stock, make glowing recommendations about it in chat rooms and on web sites, then sell when the price briefly and artificiallyrises.

    • The buying and selling can be timed perfectly with the online stock trading now available to ordinary investors on the Web.


    Online scams2

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Online Scams


    Cyber bullying

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cyber Bullying

    • Cyber bullyingis the use of Information Technology to:

      • Harm or harass other people in a deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner.

    • According to US Legal Definitions, Cyber-bullying could be limited to:

      • Posting rumors or gossips about a person in the internet bringing about dislikein other’s minds, or

      • It may go to the extent of personally identifyingvictims and publishingmaterials severely defaming and humiliating them.


    Cyber bullying1

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cyber Bullying

    • Cyber bullying is defined in legal glossariesas:

      • Actions that use information and communicationtechnologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm another or others.

    • Use of communicationtechnologies for the intention of harming another person

    • Use of internetservice and mobiletechnologies such as web pages and discussion groups as well as instant messaging or

    • SMS text messaging with the intention of harming another person.


    Cyber bullying2

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cyber Bullying

    • A cyber bully may be a person whom the target knows or an online stranger.

    • A cyber bully may be anonymous and may ask involvementofotherpeople online who do not even know the target.


    Cyber laws

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Cyber Laws

    • Cyber lawis the area of law that dealswith:

      • The Internet's relationship to technological and electronicelements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS).

    • Cyber law is also known as Internet Law.


    Malaysia s cyber laws

    IAS2193 - Part 5: Cyber Liberalization

    Malaysia’s Cyber Laws

    • Malaysia also is also involved in evolution of technology.

    • Internet has become a necessities for everybody in business, communicate socializing and many more.

    • Despite being a positive tool for users, there are some of irresponsiblepeople that are using internet in negative way such as online fraud, identity theft, virus attack and hacking.

    • Therefore, Malaysian government has already taking a big step to overcome these problems by introducing a fewactsoflaw that can be used for cyber crimes.


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