Chapter 7
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Chapter 7. Preschool: Building Literacy upon Language. Focus Questions. This chapter is designed to address the following questions: What major language development milestones occur in the preschool period?

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

Preschool: Building Literacy upon Language


Focus Questions

This chapter is designed to address the following questions:

  • What major language development milestones occur in the preschool period?

  • What major achievements in language content, form, and use characterize the preschool period?

  • What factors influence preschoolers’ individual achievements in language?

  • How do researchers and clinicians measure language development in the preschool period?


Introduction

  • Preschool period: two years prior to a child’s entry into elementary school

    ~ 3 and 5 years of age for children in the U.S.

  • “Firsts:”

    • _____________________________________ _____________________________________

    • Gain important abilities in ________________; transition to comprehension and expressing language in multiple modalities, oral and written

    • ______________________________________ ______________________________________


What Major Language Development Milestones Occur in the Preschool Period?

  • ________________________________ ________________________________.

  • Acquisition of ______________ language

  • Exposure to language in the __________ __________ and acquisition of important emergent ____________

    • Crowning achievement of the preschool period


Decontextualized Language

  • Incorporate decontextualized language in conversations in addition to contextualizedlanguage

  • Contextualized language: __________ __________________________________

    • Relies upon ___________________ that a speaker and a listener share, and upon gestures, intonation, and ___________________ situational cues


Decontextualized Language, cont

  • Decontextualized language: relies heavily upon ___________________ in construction of meaning

    • May not contain _____________ and does not assume that a speaker and listener share background knowledge or context as is the case for contextualized language

    • Cannot rely on the _______________________ to help communicate to the listener

    • Use highly precise ________________________ to represent events that are beyond the here and now

    • Fundamental to ________________


Emergent Literacy

  • Emergent literacy: _______________ ________________________________

  • Children’s literacy abilities depend upon the _______________ skills they began to acquire in infancy and toddlerhood

    • Need well-developed ___________________ before they are able to make sense of the grapheme (letter) to phoneme (sound) correspondences and need well-developed vocabulary to derive meaning from text


Emergent Literacy, cont

  • Metalinguistic ability: _____________ _______________________________

    • Correlates with children’s success with ___________________ instruction, both of which depend upon the ability to focus on language as an object of attention


Emergent Literacy, cont

  • 3 important achievements in emergent literacy for preschoolers:

    • Alphabet knowledge: ____________________ __________________________________

    • Print awareness: ______________________ ____________________________________

    • Phonological awareness: _________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________


Alphabet Knowledge

  • _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ __________________________


Alphabet Knowledge, cont

  • 4 complementary hypotheses that characterize the order by which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters:

    • Own-name advantage: __________________ _____________________________________

    • Letter-name pronunciation effect: _________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________


Alphabet Knowledge, cont

  • Letter-order hypothesis: letters occurring _______ in the alphabet string are learned before letters occurring _____ in the alphabet string

  • Consonant-order hypothesis: letters for which corresponding _____________ _________ are learned early in development are learned earlier than letters for which corresponding consonant phonemes are learned _______


Print Awareness

  • Achievements that children generally acquire along a developmental continuum

    • Print interest: ________________________

      • Recognize that print exists in the environment and in books

    • Print functions: _________________________ ______________________________________

    • Print conventions: _______________________ ______________________________________

    • Print forms: ____________– words and letters

    • Print part-to-whole relationships: __________ _______________________


Print Awareness, cont

  • Children’s oral language abilities and the interactions they have with print exert influences on how they develop ___________________

    • Adult references to print during book reading sessions


Phonological Awareness

  • Sensitivity to the sound structures of words

    • Emerges incrementally, beginning at _______ of age,

  • “Shallow” level: implicit and rudimentary sensitivity to large units of sound structure

    • __________________________________

    • __________________________________

    • __________________________________

    • __________________________________ __________________________________

    • __________________________________


Phonological Awareness, cont

  • “Deep” level: explicit and analytical knowledge of even smaller phonological segments of speech

    • ______________________________

    • ______________________________ ______________________________

    • ______________________________ ______________________


Achievements in Content

  • Learn an average of 13,000 words by the time they enter ____________

  • Fast mapping: ____________________

  • Knowledge of semantics and syntax: _____ ___________________

  • Learn new words through shared ________ ____________

  • New language content: _______________ ____________________


Fast Mapping as a Means to Acquire New Words

  • Fast mapping: acquire a general representation of a new word with as little as a single exposure

  • Slow mapping: refine representations over time with multiple exposures to a word in varying contexts

  • Dale’s 4-stage vocabulary knowledge development:

    • Stage 1: ___________________

    • Stage 2: ___________________

    • Stage 3: ___________________

    • Stage 4: ___________________


Using Knowledge of Semantics and Syntax to Infer the Meanings of New Words

  • __________ object names on the basis of information about other objects, but shift to weigh an object’s function more heavily than its perceptual appearance

  • Use knowledge about objects’ _______ when inferring the meaning of new words


Using Knowledge of Semantics and Syntax to Infer the Meaning of New Words Cont.

  • Select animate objects as referents for _____ ______________ and inanimate objects as the referents for ____________

  • Recruit ____________ that signal a novel word’s form class (e.g., noun, verb, adjective) to narrow the possibilities for that word’s referent


Shared Storybook Reading as a Means to Acquire New Words

  • Maternal language in storybook reading activities contains a more diverse array of _________________________ and tends to have a higher level of ___________ than in other language contexts, including play

  • Frequency with which parents and children engage in book reading interactions and the quality of the language children hear as they engage in storybook reading interactions may impact ________________


New Language Content: Deictic Terms

  • Deictic terms: ______________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

    • Ex. Here and this: proximity to the speaker and there and that: proximity to the listener

    • Children must be able to adopt the perspective of their conversational partner

    • Generally mastered by the time they enter schools


New Language Content: Relational Terms

  • Relational terms: interrogatives (questions), temporal terms, opposites, locational perspectives, and kinship terms

  • Understand and use once they are able to _____________________________ _______________________________


Interrogatives

  • Understand _______________ words: what where, who, whose, and which, before understand and use ________ ______________: when, how, and why


Temporal Terms

  • Order of events (before, after)

  • Duration of events (since, until)

  • Concurrence of events (while, during)

  • Understand order before concurrence of events

  • Preschoolers do not understand the meaning of _____________; tend to interpret sentences according to word order or according to their experience


Opposites

  • Learn opposites that they can perceive ________ (such as big/small) before they learn more _________ opposites (such as same/different)


Locational Prepositions

  • Describe spatial relations

  • Include: _______________________ ______________________________


Kinship Terms

  • Initially interpret kinship terms such as mommy, daddy, sister, and brother to refer to ________ _____________

    • Come to understand general meaning of these and other kinship terms, including son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother, and parent

  • Complexity of each term has the greatest impact upon the _________________________, followed by children’s familiarity with the family member to which each kinship term refers

  • Difficulty with the ____________ that some kinship terms possess


Grammatical and Derivational Morphology

  • Grammatical morphemes: _____________ __________________________________ __________________________________

  • Derivational morphology: _____________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________

    • Common derivational morphemes: pre-, -est, -ness, -ly

  • Children acquire morphemes in roughly the __________, even across different _______


Grammatical and Derivational Morphology, cont

  • Influences on the order by which children acquire grammatical and derivational morphemes:

    • ____________________________

    • ________________

    • _________________________________

    • ______________

    • ______________

    • ___________________


Grammatical and Derivational Morphology, cont

  • Greatest area of development in the preschool period occurs in ______________

    • Inflect verbs with tense, to provide information about time

      • Verb beserves as an important marker of time

  • Copula: when the verb ____ or any of its derivatives serve as the ___________ in a sentence

  • Auxiliary: when the verb __ or its derivatives serve as a ____________ in a sentence


Achievements in Phonology

  • By the end of the preschool period, most children will have mastered _________ of the ______________ of their native language

  • Two patterns that may persist past the 5th birthday include ____________________

  • _______________ continues to develop- important to children’s _______ development.


Discourse Functions

  • Toddlers’ 6 communicative functions: instrumental, regulatory, personal interactional, heuristic, imaginative, and informational

  • Preschoolers’ expanded functions:

    • Interpretive functions: ________________________ ___________

    • Logical functions: _____________________________

    • Participatory functions: _________________________ _________________________________________

    • Organizing functions: __________________


Discourse Functions, cont

  • Continue to detect and use the ___________________ that others convey in order to understand messages

    • Children better understand _________ requests when the speaker uses _______ __________in addition to the _________


Conversational Skills

  • Most preschoolers are able to maintain a conversation for _______________ turns, particularly when _________ the topic for discussion

  • Understand that they should _________ _________ and discover that to speak ________________ as another person makes for ____________ conversation


Narrative Skills

  • Child’s ________ and _________ descriptions of real or fictional events from the past, the present, or the future

    • Minimally contains __ sequential independent clauses about the _____ past event


Narrative Skills, cont

  • 2 types of narratives:

    • Personal: ___________________________

    • Fictional: ____________________________

  • Causal sequence unfolds following a _______ _________ chain of events or provides a reason or rationale for some series of events

  • Temporal sequence unfolds _________


Narrative Skills, cont

  • Most children are not able to construct true narratives with a problem and resolution (or high point) until around age ___

  • Preschoolers’ narratives become clearer as their ability to consider the __________ _______________________

  • Narrative skills are one of the best predictors of later ____________ for preschoolers at risk for _____________________________


Theory to Practice

  • When talking on the telephone, we lose many of the cues that support face-to-face conversation and must use conversation that is more ________ to _______________

  • Talking on the telephone can boost children’s _______________


What Factors Influence Individual Preschoolers’ Achievements in Language?

  • Children acquire competence in different areas at _________________

  • Influences such as _____________ status and ________ continue to exert effects on children’s language development in the preschool period


Language Profiles

  • Grow more rapidly in some areas and may grow more slowly in other areas

    • _______________________________

    • _______________________________ _______________________


Early Literacy Profiles

  • Illustrate how children can exhibit varying levels of performance across _____________________________

  • Knowing preschoolers’ strengths and weaknesses can help educators tailor early ________________ to children’s individual needs


Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Language Development

  • Quality of ________________________ in the classroom and the quality of teacher ___________________ can positively impact children’s own language growth in preschool

  • Teachers can be trained to incorporate _____ _________________________


Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Language Development, Cont

  • Benefits of classrooms with mixed SES backgrounds:

    • Experience more ________________, fewer __________________, and fewer _____________ interactions than children in homogeneous classrooms (low SES)


Effects of Gender on Language Development

  • Differences between girls and boys remain stable throughout the preschool years

  • Issues that could account for gender differences in language development:

    • _______________

    • ________________

    • ________________

    • __________________________________ __________________________________

    • __________________


Language Sample Analysis

  • Measures of _____________:

    • Total Number of Words (TNW)

    • Number of Different Words (NDW)

    • Type-Token Ratio (NDW/NTW)

  • Measures of ___________:

    • Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)

    • Developmental Sentence Scoring

  • Assess _____________________:

    • Communicative functions the child uses (requesting, commenting, responding to questions)

    • Communication acts (repair strategies, interruptions, and false starts)


Language Sample Analysis Cont.

  • Language samples should be representative

    • Reliable: _____________________________ _____________________________________

    • Valid: ________________________________ _____________________________________


The Preschool Language Scale, 5th Ed.

  • _______________ measure of vocabulary, grammar, morphology, and language reasoning that contains 2 scales

    • Auditory Comprehension Scale: children’s language comprehension abilities

      • receptive vocabulary, comprehension of concepts and grammatical markers, and ability to make comparisons and references

    • Expressive Communication Scale: children’s language production

      • expressive vocabulary, using grammatical markers, word segmentation, completing analogies, and telling a story in sequence


Multicultural Focus

  • Norm referenced measures developed for English-speaking children may fail to paint an accurate picture of bilingual children’s competencies

  • Structured interviews with parents, caregivers, or teachers

  • Inquire about:

    • ______________________________________

    • _______________________________________

    • _______________________________________

    • __________________________________________


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