The Roman Empire
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The Roman Empire 753 BCE - 337 CE. Temple of Portunus. Historically Important Facts: Monarchy and Republic 753-27 BCE Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE During the sixth century Etruscan Kings ruled Rome The Roman Republic was established in 509-27 BCE

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The Roman Empire 753 BCE - 337 CE

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The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

The Roman Empire

753 BCE- 337 CE


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

Temple of Portunus


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

  • Historically Important Facts:

  • Monarchy and Republic 753-27 BCE

  • Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE

  • During the sixth century Etruscan Kings ruled Rome

  • The Roman Republic was established in 509-27 BCE

  • Rome first conquered its neighbors then Greece in 80 BCE

  • Exposed to Greek art and architecture

  • Republican temples combined Etruscan plans with Greek orders (peristyles with Greek columns)

  • Romans developed concrete

  • First style of mural painting was Greek

  • Illusion in the Second Style is Roman

  • Republican portraits were a advanced realistic images of elderly patricians with celebrated Roman values


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

  • Early Empire 27 BCE - 96 CE

  • Augustus (r. 27 BCE-14 CE) First Roman Emperor

  • Defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BCE

  • Augustan art revived the Classical style

    • References to Periclean Athens

    • Lavish use of marble

    • Depicted as an idealized youth.

Augustus as general, Primaporta, c. 20 BCE


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

  • Early Empire 27 BCE - 96 cont…

  • Julio-Claudians (r. 14-68 CE fully utilized concrete as in

  • the Golden house of Nero.

  • The Flavian Emperors (r. 69-96 CE) erected the Colosseum,

  • Rome's first and largest amphitheater along with arches and

  • monuments celebrating their victory in Judaea

  • Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in 79 CE by mount

  • Vesuvius’ eruption.

  • The last quarter century of the towns’ existence the Third and

  • Fourth Styles were used to decorate the walls of houses.


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

  • High Empire, 96-192 CE

  • Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) transformed Rome with a new forum, markets, and civic center.

  • The Column of Trajan commemorates his two campaign in Dacia in a spiral frieze with thousands of figures.

  • Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE) emulated Greek statesmen and philosophers. He built the Pantheon a triumph of concrete technology.

  • The Antonines (r.138-192 CE) dominance of Classical art eroded and imperial artists introduced new compositional schemes in relief sculpture and added a psychological element in portraiture


The roman empire 753 bce 337 ce

  • Late Empire, 193-337 CE

  • Severans (r. 193-235 CE) Art of the Late Antique style began. Artists represented the emperor as a central frontal figure disengaged from the action around him.

  • During the chaotic Soldier emperors (r. 235-284 CE) artists depicted emperors with anxiety and insecurity in moving portraits

  • Dicletian (r. 284-2305 CE) reestablished order by sharing power. Statues portray the tetrarchs as identical and equal rulers, not individually

    • Constatine (r. 306-337 CE) restored one man rule, ended persecution of Christians, transferred the capital to Constantinople in 330. Abstract art of Constantine led the way to iconic art of the Middle Ages.


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