Taoism daoism
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道教. Taoism (Daoism). By Alex Cordaro and Juliana Young. Founders. Chuang Tzu He gave little thought to social status, reputation, or appearances. He was critical of the Confucian approach to life through rituals and etiquette. He did not look to the ancients for guidance.

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Taoism daoism

道教

Taoism (Daoism)

By Alex Cordaro and Juliana Young


Founders

Founders

  • Chuang Tzu

    • He gave little thought

      to social status,

      reputation, or

      appearances.

    • He was critical of the Confucian

      approach to life through rituals

      and etiquette.

    • He did not look to the ancients

      for guidance.

      - He thought that reality was “dynamic and ever-changing.”


Founders continued

Founders continued

  • Lao-tzu

    • Actual person credited with the creation of Taoism.

    • He was influenced by Chuang Tzu.

    • He was the original author of Tao-te ching (The Classic of Tao and its Characteristics).

    • He explained Taoist concepts like Nondoing, Fu, and Emptiness.

    • He applied Taoist philosophy to human conduct.

    • He attempted to explain the Dao.

Picture of Lao-tzu and his donkey. After declining an invitation to be a royal advisor by a messenger, Lao-tzu washed his donkey and his own ears claiming that even a messenger was filled with political corruptness that needed to be washed away. This was especially true for his donkey who Lao-tzu claimed to be easily politically pursuiaded by the “donkeys” in the government.


Historical context of founding

Historical Context of founding

  • It was founded in Shundi period (126 - 144 AD of the Han Dynasty

  • In the Warring States Period (770-256 BC), doctrine has evolved from the academic thought of Taoist.

Mythical origin:

Lao Tzu was sick of the decline of his civilization and he decided to go west and abandon civilization. On his way out, a gatekeeper asked if he would write down his teachings. Lao Tzu agreed, and, after a few days, gave the gatekeeper the Tao Te Ching.


Symb ls

Symb ls

Pa-kua

  • Ying-Yang Symbol

  • Has 8 Kua

Ying-Yang

  • Circle represents the world

  • Black= yin

  • white= yang

Kua

5) Wind

6) Thunder

7) Lake

8) Heaven

Fire

Earth

Mountain

Water

- The 8 Kua symbolize different elements of nature


Taoism daoism

I-ching coin

  • Square represents Earth

  • Circle represents Chi or Heaven

  • The Chinese used these coins as a source of payment

Symbolizes "Tien-Di-Ren,”

= "Heaven-Earth-Man"

Tortoise

  • Symbolized immortality

  • Sacred

  • One tortoise is believed to have carried world on its back

Tiger= Yin

Dragon= Yang


Deities

Deities

  • Taois a higher power but only a force of the universe. It is not a god.

  • Taoists worship and pray to several different entities including:

    • Yu-huangis the highest god.

    • Thousands of lower gods

      • Example is the Kitchen god.

    • The Three Pure Ones (the highest gods of all)

      • Yu-ch'ing, Shang-ch'ing, and T'ai-ch'ing.

      • Manifestations of Lao Tzu.

      • Seek to save mankind by teaching and benevolence.

    • The Eight Immortals

      • They were once humans but were tested by the gods or did a miraculous task that made them immortal.

      • Seven were men and one was a woman.

    • Ancestor worship is also common.

Three Pure Ones

The Eight Immortals


Location of origin

Location of Origin


Major locations today

Major locations today

  • China

  • Taiwan

  • Other Asian Countries like Japan and a few other places around the world (including North America).


Number of followers

Number of Followers

  • 31 million followers world wide

  • Most of them living in Taiwan (7.5 million)

  • About 30,000 North Americans


Types of taoism

Types of Taoism

  • Philosophical

    • Believe in wu-wei(non-action).

  • “Vitalizing”

    • Goal is to increase ch’i, available quota of vital energy.

  • Religious

    • Filled with superstitions, they use sorcery to harness occult powers.


How why taoism spread

How & Why Taoism spread

  • During the reigns of Emperor Shundi (126-144), Zhang Ling, and Emperor Lingdi (172-178) These marked the real formation and spread of Taoism.

  • It was originally a upper class religion, but in the 12th century it started to decline.

    • As a result, lower class people started to become involved in the religion, and it therefore spread throughout Asia.

  • In Modern times, Taoism has started to become integrated into Western society because people are opening their minds to the harmonistic philosophies that create harmony in a hectic world.


Sacred texts

Sacred Texts

  • The Tao Te Ching (dow day jing)

    • "The Scripture of the Way and its Efficacy”

    • It is the foundational text of Taoism.

    • It was written by Lao Tzu around 475-221 BCE.

    • It contains many proverbs and paradoxical statements.

  • The Chuang Tzu (jwahng zoo)

    • "Master Chuang”

    • It was written by Chuang Tzu around 475-221 BCE.

    • It contains stories and anecdotes and philosophy.


Places of worship

Places of Worship

  • Temples


Roles of men women

Roles of Men/Women

  • gender equality

  • men try to be more feminine, women try to be more masculine

  • priests try to take on more feminine duties such as housekeeping

  • Taode Jing: compliation of writings about Taoism

  • refers to women as “Mother of All Things”

  • encourages reader to be in the mindset of a woman

  • Women could become priests, with no limit on their rank


Roles of men women1

Roles of Men/Women

  • men and women = ying/yang (balanced each other)

  • - sexual intercourse was encouraged not by sexual desire, but instead to merge masculine and feminine energies

  • - “There should be balance, not victory over each other.”

  • - Although these were general Taoist beliefs, this did not necessarily mean that it appeared in Taoist society


Holy sites

Holy Sites

  • Five Sacred Mountains of Taoism:

    • Cities did not play an important role in important holy sites. Chinese mountains are the basis of holy sites in China. There are five major mountains that played a great deal in the development of Taoism.

  • Tai Shan: huge mountain in which pilgrims have climbed the steps to for 3,000 years in order to get to the temples along the slopes (5,028 ft.)

    - 6,500 steps, 22 temples, 11 gates, 14 archways, 14 kiosks, 4 pavilions, 819 stone tablets, 1,018 stone side/Cliffside inscriptions

  • Hua Shan: Taoist temple at the base of the mountain. Taoists believed that in the mountains lived the God of the Underworld. The temple of the base of the mountain was used to contact spirits and underlings of the God.

Hua Shan

Tai Shan


Taoism daoism

  • Hunan: lesser known of the five great mountains. There is a Taoist temple on the base, like the Hua Shan. The Hunan Mountain is not known for anything quite significant, but it was a holy site for the Taoists for its large temple.

  • Hengshan: also one of the less significant mountains. There is a large Taoist presence there, but because of the size of the mountain, it was impossible for Taoists to hike it for thousands of years since its emergence as a holy site during the Zhou Dynasty

  • Song: Although it has a great Buddhist presence, Mount Song is one of the five sacred mountains of Taoism. Located here are important temples such as the Zhongyue Temple. It is the most insignificant of the five sacred mountains.

Hunan

Hunan

Song


Major beliefs

Major Beliefs:

  • Creation Story:

    • Everything used to be gas

    • Heaven and Earth formed from 2 substances:

      • Heavier substances = yin and the Earth

      • Lighter substances = yang and the heavens.

    • This created Pan Ku, a giant

      • Assisted by: a tortoise, dragon, unicorn, and phoenix.

      • He molded the Earth to make it look like it does today.

      • When he died, his left eye became the sun and his right eye became the moon, and his blood became water, his breath became the wind, and his sweat from his labor became the rain.


Taoism daoism

  • End times story:

    • No defined end times story.

    • Taoists believed and wanted to be immortal, and focused on the life they lived rather than death.

    • Taoists briefly mention that when they die, they become a part of yin and yang, or of the heaven and Earth.


Influence on art

Influence on art

  • It’s scenic and displays the balance in nature.

  • Many paintings show mountains and some sort of body of water. These usually symbolized the balance and connections of nature. Often paintings of Taoism were scroll paintings. Scroll paintings were paintings that people would see from top to bottom and left to right, much like reading. The main object of the scroll paintings would be at the bottom.

  • Taoists also made sculptures of symbolic creatures. For example, this shows the tortoise that assisted Pan Ku in the creation story.

  • Taoist architecture consists of palaces, holy temples, altars, nunneries, and huts. All of these were affected by religion, and were used to perform religious activities that Taoists believed would help the flow of energy throughout their bodies in which they can achieve immortality. Taoists also enjoyed using furnaces in a spiritual sense, for they believed that it would lengthen one’s life. It is centered in the middle of much Taoist architecture and is symbolic of lengthier life.


Commands laws taoist s follow ten precepts

Commands/Laws: Taoist’s follow ten precepts

  • Do not kill but always be mindful of the host of living beings.

  • Do not be lascivious or think depraved thoughts.

  • Do not steal or receive unrighteous wealth.

  • Do not cheat or misrepresent good and evil.

  • Do not get intoxicated but always think of pure conduct.

  • I will maintain harmony with my ancestors and family and never disregard my kin.

  • When I see someone do a good deed, I will support him with joy and delight.

  • When I see someone unfortunate, I will support him with dignity to recover good fortune.

  • When someone comes to do me harm, I will not harbor thoughts of revenge.

  • As long as all beings have not attained the Tao, I will not expect to do so myself


Purpose of life

Purpose of Life

  • Live in accordance to the Tao

  • Attaining immortality through:

    • exercising power throughout the body

      • For example, Taoists believed that regulating their breath so it could circulate to all parts of the body, as well harnessing sexual energy so that power is circulated throughout the body.

Yoga


Influence on art1

Influence on Art

  • Taoist art is very scenic and displays the balance in nature. Many paintings show mountains and some sort of body of water. In fact, the Chinese word of landscape literally means “mountains and water.” These usually symbolized the balance and connections of nature. Often paintings of Taoism were scroll paintings. Scroll paintings were paintings that people would see from top to bottom and left to right, much like reading. The main object of the scroll paintings would be at the bottom.

  • Taoists also made sculptures of symbolic creatures. For example, this shows the tortoise that assisted Pan Ku in the creation story.


Influence on architecture

Influence on Architecture

Taoist furnace

  • Taoist architecture consists of:

    • Palaces

    • holy temples

    • altars

    • nunneries

    • huts.

  • All of these were affected by religion, and were used to perform religious activities that Taoists believed would help the flow of energy throughout their bodies in which they can achieve immortality.

  • Taoists enjoyed using furnaces in a spiritual sense, for they believed that it would lengthen one’s life. It is centered in the middle of much Taoist architecture and is symbolic of lengthier life.


Taoism daoism

Thank You!


Works cited

Works cited

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  • "Chinese New Year." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/chinese-new-year>.

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  • "Hengshan Mountain (Hunan)." Hengshan Mountain (Hunan). China Culture, 2003. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_21819.htm>.

  • "Hua Shan Scenic Area." - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. World Heritage Centre, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1626/>.

  • Littlejohn, Ronnie. "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." DaoistPhilosophy []. IEP, 18 Sept. 2003. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/daoism/>.

  • "Meaning of Taoism." HowStuffWorks. How Stuff Works, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://people.howstuffworks.com/meaning-of-taoism1.htm>.

  • "Mount Taishan." World Heritage Centre. World Heritage Centre, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/437>.

  • "Osho Wisdom Stories." Osho Story on Lao Tzu & His Donkey, Lao Tzu & Wise Donkey Story. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.messagefrommasters.com/Stories/Wisdom Lao_Tzu_and_His_Donkey.htm>.

  • "Sacred Mountains of China." -. Sacred Sites, 2010. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://sacredsites.com/asia/china/sacred_mountains.html>.


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Taoism daoism

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  • "The Ghost Festival." Chinese Ghost Festival. Religion Facts, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.religionfacts.com/chinese_religion/holidays/ghost_festival.htm>.

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