Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics
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Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics. Kerstin Sonnabend Darmstadt, Germany Presented by: Michael Hass, Weizmann, Israel. And the role of EURISOL…. CARINA C hallenges and A dvanced R esearch I n N uclear A strophysics. Carmen Angulo. Kerstin Sonnabend

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Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Kerstin Sonnabend

Darmstadt, Germany

Presented by:

Michael Hass, Weizmann, Israel

And the role of EURISOL….


Carina c hallenges and a dvanced r esearch i n n uclear a strophysics

CARINAChallenges and Advanced Research In Nuclear Astrophysics

Carmen Angulo

Kerstin Sonnabend

Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Germany


Carina activities

CARINA activities

  • Two CARINA workshops organized:

    • First workshop: „Perspectives in European Nuclear Astrophysics“, Parador d‘Aiguablava, Girona, Spain, June 8th - 10th, 2005

      • 39 participants from ten countries

      • five review talks on astrophysical models (explosive burning and AGB/quiescent burning), nuclear models for astrophysics, experiments with RIB at LSF, and experiments at small facilities

      • short talks and discussions in working group sessions (plenary)

      • summary of the conclusions:

        • large variety of problems needs large variety of methods

        • specific tools needed for different nucleosynthesis scenarios

        • small-scale facilities as ‚feeders‘ to large-scale facilities

        • establish a ‚flagship‘ ISOL-type facility for nuclear astrophysics with gas targets, recoil separator, spectrometer, solid-state detectors, and g-ray detection systems available

        • find tentative lists of astrophysical sites and nuclear models for nuclear astrophysics


Carina activities1

CARINA activities

  • Second workshop: „Frontier Research in European Nuclear Astrophysics“, Spaulomont, Spa, Belgium, April 25th - 28th, 2007

    • 37 participants from 13 countries

    • 21 talks and five discussions (plenary)

    • workshop explored opportunities for new European facilities

      • agreement that additional facilities, specifically for nuclear astrophysics, are warranted and needed

      • lively discussion over strategy: should it be a dedicated nuclear astrophysics proposal, or complementary to a general nuclear physics proposal?

      • possibilities include: nuclear astrophysics labs network, an underground accelerator, a dedicated nuclear astrophysics separator for capture reactions, reclamation of radioisotopes, ...


Continuation of the carina network within fp7

Continuation of the CARINA network within FP7

  • JRA-9 (P.J. Woods & M. Hass)

  • NA-15 (S. Marrone & F. Käppeler)

  • NA-16 (K. Sonnabend & C. Angulo)

  • and tasks of N-NA07 (Theory) related to Nuclear Astrophysics


N na06 nuclear astrophysics

N-NA06:Nuclear Astrophysics

Coordinator: K. Sonnabend, Darmstadt, Germany

Task 1 – Explosive Nucleo-Synthesis

P.J. Woods, Edinburgh, UK, M. Hass, Weizmann, Israel

Task 2 - Reactions at Low Temperatures

K. Sonnabend, Darmstadt, Germany

Task 3 - Nucleo-Synthesis in neutron capture processes

S. Marrone, INFN Bari, Italy

Task 4 – Nuclear astrophysics annual meeting

ENSAR meeting,

Frankfurt, December 12th, 2007


Novelty innovation

Novelty & Innovation

  • Concentrate on special issues of interdisciplinary field of research

  • Provide individual solutions for problems of special issues

  • Use already available infrastructures

  • Find and enhance synergetic effects

  • Integrate it all in annual meetings


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Task 2 - Reactions at Low Temperatures

K. Sonnabend, Darmstadt, Germany

  • e.g. - Solar reactions

  • Not necessarily RIB

  • Smaller laboratories (local)

  • Underground possibilities (“a la LUNA”)


The sno sudbury neutrino observatory experiment

The SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory) Experiment

A D2O Detector

Elastic

Mostly ne

nx +e-nx+e-

ne + d p + p + e-

charge current

Only ne

nx + d p + n + nx

neutral current

All flavors

YES!!

PRL87, 071301 (2001)

PRL 89, 011301 (2002)

PRL 92, 181301 (2004)

“SMOKING GUN”!!


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Current status of S17 - direct capture - determinations

Recognized need for a new WI measurement at low energy…

In progress… 7Be(p,g)8B “saga” not over yet…..


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Summary of Coulomb Dissociation S17Results

F. Schümann et al. Phys. Rev. C 73, 015806 (2006)

By Courtesy of T. Motobayashi


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

·  (7Be,8B) proton transfer at 12 MeV/u

two targets:

10B: S17(0) = 18.4  2.5 eVb (PRL ’99)

14N: S17(0) = 18.0  1.8 eVb (PRC ’99; PRC ‘06)

·13C(7Li,8Li)12C at 9 MeV/u

using mirror symmetry (PRC ‘03)

S17(0) = 17.6  1.7 eVb

Average: S17 =18.2  1.7 eVb

S17astrophysical factor - ANC - (R. Tribble)

Transfer

Determine C2 by

three approaches

8B breakup

  • JLM S17=17.4±2.1 eVb

  • “standard” S17=19.6±1.2 eVb

  • Ray S17=20.0±1.6 eVb

Average: S17=18.7±1.9 eVb

PRC ‘04


Results and fits

Results and Fits

New LUNA Activity Result

-

Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 122502 (2006)

S34(0) = 0.53(2)(1) keV-b

B.S. Nara Singh et al.,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 262503 (2004).

No compelling need to assume

Systematic difference between

prompt and activity determinations

  • RMS ERNA in Bochum

  • Seattle


Dedicated experiments to measure the 7 be ec lines borexino etc

Dedicated experiments to measure the 7Be EC lines: Borexino etc…

SNO


B primordial 7 li sbbn a coc orsay

b.- Primordial 7Li –SBBN (A. Coc, Orsay)


N tof astrophysics present future

n_TOF/Astrophysics:present & future

Task 3 - Nucleo-Synthesis in neutron capture processes

S. Marrone, INFN Bari, Italy

[email protected]

www.cern.ch/n_TOF


N uclear astrophysics

Nuclear Astrophysics

Re/Os cosmo-chronometer

Red Giants

Nr= Nsolar – Ns

Residual Method

Supernovae

[email protected]

www.cern.ch/n_TOF


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

The n_TOF-Ph2 experiments

2008 and beyond

(*) endorsed by CERN Isolde-n_TOF Committee, execution in 2008

[email protected]

www.cern.ch/n_TOF


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

The second n_TOF beam line

NewExperimentalArea (EAR-2)

~ 20 m

present EAR-1

(at 185 m)

Proton Beam

Spallation Target

  • present EAR-1: Flight path ~185 m, Neutron Flux~106 n per proton bunch; High resolution in neutron energy.

  • new EAR-2: Flight path ~20 m at 90° with respect to p-beam; neutron flux enhanced by factor ~100; drastic reduction of backgrounds.

[email protected]

www.cern.ch/n_TOF


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

  • Task 1 – Explosive Nucleo-Synthesis

  • Identification of the key reactions, including specification of the energy range and

  • precision required for future experimental studies (leading institute: Barcelona).

  • Identification of the key technical developments required to deliver the highest

  • priority radioactive beams to measure these reactions including exchange of

  • technical ideas and coordination, of how and where developments should be

  • best achieved (leading institute: Weizmann).

  • Identification of the key characteristics of design and construction of

  • novel detector and spectrometer systems to measure these reactions

  • including exchange of technical ideas and coordination of single activities

  • (leading institute: Edinburgh).

  • Determination of key features of nuclear properties, nuclear reactions,

  • and the nuclear equation of state for astrophysical simulations and their

  • experimental and/or theoretical verification (leading institute: Basel).


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Secondary neutrons + fission

BUT

Also light RIB’s

And SARAF!


Fusion reactions in the sun the cno cycle

Fusion Reactions in the Sun:The CNO cycle

…..

17F

(a,p)

14O

  • Proposed at GANIL


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Mass accretion from a companion into a

neutron star (black hole).

  • Role of 14O, 15O and 18Ne in the physics

    of x-ray bursts

M. Wiescher et al. Erice Conference, 2007

J.L. Fisker et al., arXiv:astro-ph/070241

4He(15O,g)19NE


X ray bursts and the rp process

X-Ray Bursts and the “rp” process

The rp process and x-ray bursts - site of nucleo-synthesis

Courtesy of Joint Inst. For Nuclear Astrophysics (US)


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Recent Experiments (in progress)

ISOLDE experiment IS424 (Sept. ’07): (in collaboration with P.J. Woods et al.).

  • The use of a 17F beam from the upgraded REX-ISOLDE facility to study the

  • astrophysically important 14O(α,p)17F reaction in time reverse kinematics.

  • REX-ISOLDE + MINIBALL

  • Only ~ 103 17F/s

On-line data of p-g coincidences –

Indicating the 1st excited state of 17F


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

GANIL experiment – accepted by GANIL PAC : (in collaboration with Marialuisa Aliotta et al.)

Plan to investigate the direct 14O(a,p)17F reaction at four different energies

in the energy region Ecm = 1.0-2.5 MeV

Calculated total S(E) factor.

Constructive (+) and destructive (-)

interference between the Jpp=1-

6.15 MeV state and the direct l=1

partial wave contribution are shown.


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Long-learned lesson:

“orders-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity of measurement –

enhanced understanding and possibilities”.

14N(d,2n)14O cross section and yield 14N(d,n)15O cross section and yield for a 2 mA deuteron beam for a 2 mA deuterons beam

But, extraction of atomic oxygen…


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

8Li energies of interest

E(8Li [MeV])

6

3


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Examples of Reactions with RNB’s for Astrophysics

  • 8B(p,g)9C

  • 8B(a,p)11C

  • 9C(a,p)12N

  • 11C(p,g)12N


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

Nucleosynthesis in AGB Stars - Maurizio M. Busso Perugia

CNO, Ne-Na, Mg-Al Cycles

Important experimental and theoretical work has addressed the CNO cycle……..

e.g. 14N(p,g)15O (see: Schroeder et al. 1987; Angulo et al. 2001)

Runkle et al. 2002, Phys Rev C 66

Formicola et al. 2004, Phys. Lett. B. 591

Runkle et al. 2005, Phys Rev C 94

…. and of the hotter cycles of H-burning:

e.g. for reacions on O isotopes and Na (leading to Mg-A)

Fox et al. 2004, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93: 17O+p

Rowlad et al. 2004 Phys Rev. Lett 93: 23Na+p


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

RECENT LUNA ACHIEVEMENTS ON CNO

H.P. Trautvetter, ECT Nuclear Astrop. Workshop, (Trento, May 2004)


Ne na and mg al cycles

Ne-Na and Mg-Al ‘cycles’

(p,g)

(p,a) (p,g)

But; effects on higher nuclei (26Al) limited by minimal of 20Ne

production (at least with NACRE): Arnould et al. 1999.


Finances

Finances

  • each specialized task (1 - 3):50 k€

  • general annual meetings:40 k€

  • support of coordinator:4 k€

  • total costs:194 k€


Open questions and issues in nuclear astrophysics

  • General considerations to remember: -

  • It is nuclear structure after all - masses, Q values, lifetimes,

  • reaction theory, ….

  • Nuclear (astro) physics vs. “modeling” and “standard” astro.

  • Nuclear astrophysics as “motif” for many RIB facilities.

  • BUT

  • How much time would a Facility devote to these time-consuming experiments


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