Essential knowledge 2 a 3
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Essential knowledge 2.A.3:. Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization. Molecules and atoms from the environment are necessary to build new molecules. Carbon is at the base of all life.

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Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Essential knowledge 2.A.3:

Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.


Molecules and atoms from the environment are necessary to build new molecules

Molecules and atoms from the environment are necessary to build new molecules.

  • Carbon is at the base of all life

  • Carbon-most versatile building block of molecules. Why?

    - 4 valence electrons

  • Can form 4 single covalent bonds

  • Capable of forming double and triple covalent bonds

  • Can combine with atoms of many different elements


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Carbon moves from the environment to organisms where it is used to build carbohydrates, proteins, lipids or nucleic acids.


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Carbon moves from the environment to organisms where it is used to build carbohydrates, proteins, lipids or nucleic acids.


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Nitrogen moves from the environment to organisms where it is used in building proteins and nucleic acids.


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Nitrogen moves from the environment to organisms where it is used in building proteins and nucleic acids.

Nucleotides – monomers of

DNA and RNA


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Phosphorus moves from the environment to organisms where it is used in nucleic acids and certain lipids.

Phospholipid

Phospates make up the backbone of DNA and RNA


Properties of water

Properties of Water

With a partner, write a few sentences about the properties of water that were observed in the weird water activities.

Compare and Contrast the following terms as they apply to the properties of water:

  • Cohesion

  • Adhesion

  • High specific heat capacity

  • Universal solvent supports reactions

  • Heat of vaporization

  • Heat of fusion

  • Water’s thermal conductivity


What makes water so weird

What makes water so weird?

  • Most properties of water emerge because water is polar and hydrogen bonds form between adjacent water molecules.


Cohesion and adhesion

Cohesion and Adhesion

  • Cohesion: Water is attracted to water

  • Adhesion: Water is attracted to other substances


Surface tension

Surface Tension

  • The cohesive forces between liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon known as surface tension.

  • The cohesive forces between molecules in a liquid are shared with all neighboring molecules. Those on the surface have no neighboring molecules above and, thus, exhibit stronger attractive forces upon their nearest neighbors on and below the surface.


High specific heat capacity

High specific heat capacity

  • This is why it takes so long to boil water!!


Universal solvent supports reactions

Universal solvent supports reactions


Heat of vaporization

Heat of vaporization


Heat of fusion

Heat of fusion

  • water has a high heat of fusion, or the heat you need to take out of water to get it to solidify (freeze).

  • What all this means is that water can hold a lot of heat energy before it changes temperatures and states (solid to liquid to gas).

  • This property of water is great if you are an organism that lives in the water. Why, you might ask? A high heat of fusion means that, even if the temperature of the air changes a lot, water will shelter you from those changes and provide a pretty stable environment.


Water s thermal conductivity

Water’s thermal conductivity

  • Even though only the bottom of the pot is heated, the temperature of all the water will quickly rise.


Lastly

Lastly …

Thanks Water!!

I did not know how neat you were!


Macromolecules

Macromolecules

  • Bozeman Biology: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYH63o10iTE&list=PL8GOEDwLwlIOiSrWJuCzUxJ_zMemyYDDZ&index=5

  • Other macromolecule video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0&list=PL8GOEDwLwlIOiSrWJuCzUxJ_zMemyYDDZ


Polymers

Polymers

  • Covalent monomers

  • Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction):One monomer provides a hydroxyl group while the other provides a hydrogen to form a water molecule

  • Hydrolysis:bonds between monomers are broken by adding water (digestion)


Carbohydrates i

Carbohydrates, I

  • Monosaccharides √ CH2O formula; √ multiple hydroxyl (-OH) groups and 1 carbonyl (C=O) group: aldehyde (aldoses) sugar ketone sugar √ cellular respiration; √ raw material for amino acids and fatty acids


Carbohydrates ii

Carbohydrates, II

  • Disaccharidesglycosidic linkage (covalent bond) between 2 monosaccharides; covalent bond by dehydration reaction

  • Sucrose (table sugar)most common disaccharide


Carbohydrates iii

Polysaccharides

Energy Storage:

Plants: starch (glucose monomers)

Animals: glycogen

PolysaccharidesStructural in function:

Plants: Cellulose

Animals:Chitin~exoskeleton; cell walls of fungi;

Carbohydrates, III


Lipids

Lipids

  • No polymers; glycerol and fatty acid

  • Fats, phospholipids, steroids

  • Hydrophobic; H bonds in water exclude fats

  • Carboxyl group = fatty acid

  • Non-polar C-H bonds in fatty acid ‘tails’

  • Ester linkage: 3 fatty acids to 1 glycerol (dehydration formation)

  • Triacyglycerol (triglyceride)

  • Saturated vs. unsaturated fats; single vs. double bonds


Phospholipids

Phospholipids

  • 2 fatty acids instead of 3 (phosphate group)

  • ‘Tails’ hydrophobic; ‘heads’ hydrophilic

  • Micelle (phospholipid droplet in water)

  • Bilayer (double layer);cell membranes


Steroids

Steroids

  • Lipids with 4 fused carbon rings

  • Ex: cholesterol:cell membranes;precursor for other steroids (sex hormones); atherosclerosis


Proteins

Proteins

  • Importance: instrumental in nearly everything organisms do; 50% dry weight of cells; most structurally sophisticated molecules known

  • Monomer: amino acids (there are 20) ~carboxyl (-COOH) group, amino group (NH2), H atom, variable group (R)….

  • Variable group characteristics: polar (hydrophilic), nonpolar (hydrophobic), acid or base

  • Three-dimensional shape (conformation)

  • Polypeptides (dehydration reaction): peptide bonds~ covalent bond; carboxyl group to amino group (polar)


Protein structure

Protein Structure

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

  • Quaternary


Primary structure

Primary Structure

  • Conformation: Linear structure

  • Molecular Biology: each type of protein has a unique primary structure of amino acids

  • Ex:lysozyme

  • Amino acid substitution:hemoglobin; sickle-cell anemia


Secondary structure

Secondary Structure

  • Conformation: coils & folds (hydrogen bonds)

  • Alpha Helix:coiling; keratin

  • Pleated Sheet:parallel; silk


Tertiary structure

Tertiary Structure

  • Conformation: irregular contortions from R group bonding√hydrophobic√disulfide bridges√hydrogen bonds √ionic bonds


Quaternary structure

Quaternary Structure

  • Conformation: 2 or more polypeptide chains aggregated into 1 macromolecule√collagen (connective tissue)√hemoglobin


Types of proteins

Types of Proteins

  • Structural Protein

  • Storage Proteins

  • Transport Proteins

  • Receptor Proteins

  • Contractile

  • Defensive

  • Enzymes

  • Signal

  • Sensory

  • Gene Regulator


Nucleic acids i

Nucleic Acids, I

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

  • DNA->RNA->protein

  • Polymers of nucleotides (polynucleotide):nitrogenous basepentose sugarphosphate group

  • Nitrogenous bases:pyrimidines~cytosine, thymine, uracilpurines~adenine, guanine


Nucleic acids ii

Nucleic Acids, II

  • Pentoses:√ribose (RNA)√deoxyribose (DNA)√nucleoside(base + sugar)

  • Polynucleotide:√phosphodiester linkages (covalent); phosphate + sugar


Nucleic acids iii

Nucleic Acids, III

  • Inheritance based on DNA replication

  • Double helix (Watson & Crick - 1953)H bonds~ between paired bases van der Waals~ between stacked bases

  • A to T; C to G pairing

  • Complementary


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Surface area-to-volume ratios affect a biological system’s ability to obtain necessary resources or eliminate waste products


Why can t cells be extremely large

Why can’t cells be extremely large?

  • As cells increase in volume, the relative surface area decreases and demand for material resources increases; more cellular structures are necessary to adequately exchange materials and energy with the environment.

  • These limitations restrict cell size.


Essential knowledge 2 a 3

Examples of tissues and cells that increases their surface are to maximize absorptions of nutrients and the elimination of waste.

Root hairs

  • Root hairs

  • Cells of the alveoli

  • Cells of the villi

  • Microvilli


What have we learned today about cells

What have we learned today about cells?

  • The surface area of the plasma membrane must be large enough to adequately exchange materials;

  • smaller cells have a more favorable surface area-to-volume ratio for exchange of materials with the environment


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