The French Revolution

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Napoleon, France and Europe. 1799-Coup of Brumaire-Napoleon named as First Consul1800-Bank of France is set up1801-Concordat with the Pope1804-Code Napoleon-Napoleon is crowned Emperor. 1806-Continental Blockade (until 1813)1813-Battle of Leipzig1814-Fall of Paris: Napoleon abdicates1

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The French Revolution

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1. The French Revolution 1789 -14 July: The fall of the Bastille -20 July – 6 August: The Great Fear -August: The August decrees -26 August: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen -October: October Days: the King is forced back to Paris 1789-1791 -The Constituent Assembly 1791 -20/21 June: The flight to Varennes 1792 -20 April: War is declared on Austria -1 August: The Brunswick Manifesto -10 August: the violent journee to the Tuileries. The King taken into custody

2. Napoleon, France and Europe 1799 -Coup of Brumaire -Napoleon named as First Consul 1800 -Bank of France is set up 1801 -Concordat with the Pope 1804 -Code Napoleon -Napoleon is crowned Emperor 1806 -Continental Blockade (until 1813) 1813 -Battle of Leipzig 1814 -Fall of Paris: Napoleon abdicates 1815 -The Hundred Days -Napoleon in exile 1821 -Death of Napoleon

3. International relations from the Congress of Vienna to 1848 1815 -20 November: Second Treaty of Paris -Quadruple Alliance is signed by Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia 1821 -April: Greek War of Independence begins (lasts until 1829) 1828 -Russia intervenes on behalf of the Greeks, beginning a Russo-Turkish war 1830 -Greece is declared independent under protection of Britain, Russia and France

4. France 1814-1848 1848 -Revolution in Paris; Louis-Philippe abdicates.

5. The German Confederation and the Austrian Empire, 1815-1848 1834 -Establishment of the Zollverein (excluding Austria) 1848 -Revolution in France sparks revolutions in the German Confederation and Austrian Empire.

6. Italy, 1815-1848 1814-15 -The Vienna Settlement; separate states; controlled by their former ruling houses, is re-established in Italy 1831 -Revolutions are crushed by Austrian troops -Mazzini founds ‘Young Italy’ (a nationalist society) in Marseilles 1847 -Cavour and Balbo found II Risorgimento (‘The Resurrection’), a nationalist newspaper 1848 -Revolutions occur in many Italian States.

7. Russia, 1801-1871 1848-49 -Revolution in Europe. Russia intervenes to defeat revolt in Hungary -Nicholas’s rule becomes more repressive 1853-56 -Crimean War 1863 -Second Polish Revolt 1881 -Assassination of Alexander II.

8. The Revolutions of 1848 and 1849 1848 -March: Introduction of universal manhood suffrage and the ‘right to work’ in France. Resignation of Metternich. Violence in Berlin. War between Piedmont and Austria -July: Radetzky defeats Piedmonts at Custoza. Meeting of Constituent Assembly in Vienna. 1849 -February: Establishment of the Roman Republic by Mazzini and Garibaldi -July: Suppression of the Roman Republic by French troops -August: Hungarian rebels surrender to Austrian and Russian troops.

9. France: Second Republic and Second Empire, 1848-1870 1858 -July: Franco-Piedmontese agreement at Plombieres 1859 -May: French troops enter northern Italy. Battle of Magenta. -July: Agreement with Austria at Villafranca. 1870 -July: Outbreak of Franco-Prussian War -September: Battle of Sedan. Collapse of Second Empire and proclamation of Third Republic.

10. The unification of Italy 1850 -Cavour appointed Piedmontese Minister for Trade, Agriculture and the Navy 1851 -Cavour appointed Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardania 1855 -Piedmont joins Britain and France in Crimean War 1858 -January: Orsini’s attempted assassination of Napoleon III -July: Pact of Plombieres between Cavour and Napoleon III 1859 -April: Austrian declaration of war on Piedmont-Sardinia -June: Battle of Magenta; Battle of Solferino -July: Armistice signed at Villafranca

11. The unification of Italy [continued] 1860 -March: Plebiscites in Central Duchies in favour of unity with Piedmont -May: Garibaldi’s expedition to Sicily. Battle of Calatafimi -September: Garibaldi’s forces enter Naples -October: Meeting between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel at Teano 1861 -March: Victor Emmanuel II proclaimed King of Italy -June: Death of Cavour 1870 -September: Occupation of Rome by the Italian army. Rome incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy.

12. The unification of Germany, 1850-1871 1862 -Bismarck is appointed Minister President of Prussia 1863 -Polish Revolt. Prussia offers Alvensleben Convention to Russia. 1864 -Prussia and Austria go to war with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein 1866 -June: Outbreak of war between Prussia and Austria -July: Prussian victory at Sadowa -August: Peace of Prague 1867 -Formation of North German Confederation 1870 -July: Crisis over Hohenzollern candidate to the Spanish throne. Outbreak of Franco-Prussian War -September: Defeat of French forces at Sedan 1871 -Proclamation of the German Empire (Reich).

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