Recent studies of mars 2013 2014
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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014. Richard W. Schmude, Jr. Gordon State College Barnesville, GA. Overview. Purpose of work North Polar Cap (NPC) Hellas Brightness measurements. Purpose. NPC interannual variability Hellas variability Time of day Year season

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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014

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Recent studies of mars 2013 2014

Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014

Richard W. Schmude, Jr.

Gordon State College

Barnesville, GA


Overview

Overview

  • Purpose of work

  • North Polar Cap (NPC)

  • Hellas

  • Brightness measurements


Purpose

Purpose

  • NPC interannual variability

  • Hellas variability

    • Time of day

    • Year

    • season

  • Brightness (visible & Near infrared)


Hubble image processed by p james t clancy s lee and nasa

Hubble Image Processed by P. James, T. Clancy, S. Lee and NASA


Introduction ls

Introduction: Ls


Voting questions

Voting Questions

  • Do not talk to anyone until after 1st vote

  • After 1st vote

    • Talk to someone that you disagree with

    • Convince him/her that you are right

    • Listen to your partner


Voting question

Voting Question

  • If Ls = 135° it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.

    a. late springb. mid spring

    c. early summerd. mid summer


Voting question1

Voting Question

Ls = 50° is similar to _______ in the USA.

a. Februaryb. June

c. Octoberd. May


Method and materials

Method and Materials

  • WinJupos

    • Name an image

      • 2014-07-12-1320-name & other info.

    • Load an image

    • Software computes longitude & latitude


Polar cap measurement goal get all longitudes

Polar Cap MeasurementGoal: get all longitudes


Npc mean latitude

NPC: Mean latitude


Hellas measurements

Hellas measurements

  • Northern border measured

    • Every 5° of longitude

    • 270° W to 320° W

    • Red light images used

    • Mean values computed for each 5° of longitude


Why r ed light green left red right

Why red light?green-left & red-right


Results npc in 2013 2014

Results: NPC in 2013 – 2014


Interannual variability

Interannual variability

  • Spring NPC

    • Mean latitudes (all longitudes) considered

    • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

      • 90% confidence level

      • As few as five values

      • Non-parametric test


Data sets

Data sets

  • MGS: 2000, 2002, 2006*, 2007-08*

  • Schmude: 2009-10, 2011-12, 2013-14

  • Individual latitudes are not reported


Results

Results


Voting question2

Voting Question

At Ls = 50°, the temperatures are __________ in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

a. risingb. falling


Hellas w hite layer

Hellas: white layer

  • Northern border

    • Clouds or frost?

    • Growth during fall?

    • Changes from morning to afternoon?

    • Interannual differences?


Hellas white layer

Hellas: white layer


Hellas changes in northern border

Hellas: changes in Northern border

  • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

    • Mid fall (1995) and late fall – early winter (2014)

    • Morning afternoon (2014)

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Statistical results hellas

Statistical results: Hellas

  • There is no statistical difference (90% conf.)

    • Mid fall and late fall/early winter

    • Morning and afternoon

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Brightness measurements

Brightness Measurements

  • Purpose

    • Long-term changes

    • Water reservoirs

    • Dust storms

    • Brightness model of planet


Brightness in magnitudes

Brightness in Magnitudes

  • Zero magnitude = a flux of light

  • As magnitude drops, brightness increases


Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation

  • Electric wave

  • Magnetic wave

  • Velocity = 186,000 miles/hour (vacuum)

  • Wavelength (length of one wave)


Electromagnetic radiation wavelength and color

Electromagnetic radiationWavelength and color


Previous work

Previous work

  • Schmude measured B, V, R and I brightness of Mars from 1991 to 2014

  • Mallama (2007) summarizes work up to 2005.

  • Almost no work done for J and H filters


Near infrared light

Near Infrared light


Voting question3

Voting question

Please rank the objects from highest to lowest magnitude.

a. Sun, full Moon, Venus

b. Sun, Venus, full Moon

c. Full Moon, Venus, Sun

d. Venus, full Moon, Sun


Materials

Materials

  • SSP-4 photometer

  • CelestronCG-4 mount

  • 0.09 m Maksutov telescope

  • Extension cord (requires AC power)


Experimental set up

Experimental set-up


Method of brightness measurement

Method of brightness measurement

  • Sky brightness and then comparison star

  • Sky brightness and then Mars

  • Repeat 2 ½ more times

  • Compute Mars’ magnitude

  • Make corrections


Normalized magnitude j 1 0 and h 1 0

Normalized Magnitude J(1,0) and H(1,0)

  • Mars is 1 au from Earth and Sun

  • Sunlight reflects directly back to observer (zero phase angle)


Results albedo

Results: Albedo


Light curve j filter

Light curve J filter


Light curve h filter

Light curve H filter


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • NPC may undergo small changes from one year to the next

  • Hellas white area: No change with respect to diurnal, seasonal or year to year cycles

  • Mars’ albedo does not rise in near infrared

  • Mars brightens as it rotates in the J & H filters


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