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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014. Richard W. Schmude, Jr. Gordon State College Barnesville, GA. Overview. Purpose of work North Polar Cap (NPC) Hellas Brightness measurements. Purpose. NPC interannual variability Hellas variability Time of day Year season

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Recent studies of mars 2013 2014

Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014

Richard W. Schmude, Jr.

Gordon State College

Barnesville, GA


Overview
Overview

  • Purpose of work

  • North Polar Cap (NPC)

  • Hellas

  • Brightness measurements


Purpose
Purpose

  • NPC interannual variability

  • Hellas variability

    • Time of day

    • Year

    • season

  • Brightness (visible & Near infrared)


Hubble image processed by p james t clancy s lee and nasa
Hubble Image Processed by P. James, T. Clancy, S. Lee and NASA



Voting questions
Voting Questions

  • Do not talk to anyone until after 1st vote

  • After 1st vote

    • Talk to someone that you disagree with

    • Convince him/her that you are right

    • Listen to your partner


Voting question
Voting Question

  • If Ls = 135° it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.

    a. late spring b. mid spring

    c. early summer d. mid summer


Voting question1
Voting Question

Ls = 50° is similar to _______ in the USA.

a. February b. June

c. October d. May


Method and materials
Method and Materials

  • WinJupos

    • Name an image

      • 2014-07-12-1320-name & other info.

    • Load an image

    • Software computes longitude & latitude


Polar cap measurement goal get all longitudes
Polar Cap MeasurementGoal: get all longitudes



Hellas measurements
Hellas measurements

  • Northern border measured

    • Every 5° of longitude

    • 270° W to 320° W

    • Red light images used

    • Mean values computed for each 5° of longitude


Why r ed light green left red right
Why red light?green-left & red-right



Interannual variability
Interannual variability

  • Spring NPC

    • Mean latitudes (all longitudes) considered

    • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

      • 90% confidence level

      • As few as five values

      • Non-parametric test


Data sets
Data sets

  • MGS: 2000, 2002, 2006*, 2007-08*

  • Schmude: 2009-10, 2011-12, 2013-14

  • Individual latitudes are not reported



Voting question2
Voting Question

At Ls = 50°, the temperatures are __________ in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

a. rising b. falling


Hellas w hite layer
Hellas: white layer

  • Northern border

    • Clouds or frost?

    • Growth during fall?

    • Changes from morning to afternoon?

    • Interannual differences?



Hellas changes in northern border
Hellas: changes in Northern border

  • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

    • Mid fall (1995) and late fall – early winter (2014)

    • Morning afternoon (2014)

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Statistical results hellas
Statistical results: Hellas

  • There is no statistical difference (90% conf.)

    • Mid fall and late fall/early winter

    • Morning and afternoon

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Brightness measurements
Brightness Measurements

  • Purpose

    • Long-term changes

    • Water reservoirs

    • Dust storms

    • Brightness model of planet


Brightness in magnitudes
Brightness in Magnitudes

  • Zero magnitude = a flux of light

  • As magnitude drops, brightness increases


Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation

  • Electric wave

  • Magnetic wave

  • Velocity = 186,000 miles/hour (vacuum)

  • Wavelength (length of one wave)


Electromagnetic radiation wavelength and color
Electromagnetic radiationWavelength and color


Previous work
Previous work

  • Schmude measured B, V, R and I brightness of Mars from 1991 to 2014

  • Mallama (2007) summarizes work up to 2005.

  • Almost no work done for J and H filters



Voting question3
Voting question

Please rank the objects from highest to lowest magnitude.

a. Sun, full Moon, Venus

b. Sun, Venus, full Moon

c. Full Moon, Venus, Sun

d. Venus, full Moon, Sun


Materials
Materials

  • SSP-4 photometer

  • CelestronCG-4 mount

  • 0.09 m Maksutov telescope

  • Extension cord (requires AC power)



Method of brightness measurement
Method of brightness measurement

  • Sky brightness and then comparison star

  • Sky brightness and then Mars

  • Repeat 2 ½ more times

  • Compute Mars’ magnitude

  • Make corrections


Normalized magnitude j 1 0 and h 1 0
Normalized Magnitude J(1,0) and H(1,0)

  • Mars is 1 au from Earth and Sun

  • Sunlight reflects directly back to observer (zero phase angle)





Conclusions
Conclusions

  • NPC may undergo small changes from one year to the next

  • Hellas white area: No change with respect to diurnal, seasonal or year to year cycles

  • Mars’ albedo does not rise in near infrared

  • Mars brightens as it rotates in the J & H filters


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