Recent studies of mars 2013 2014
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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014. Richard W. Schmude, Jr. Gordon State College Barnesville, GA. Overview. Purpose of work North Polar Cap (NPC) Hellas Brightness measurements. Purpose. NPC interannual variability Hellas variability Time of day Year season

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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014

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Recent Studies of Mars: 2013-2014

Richard W. Schmude, Jr.

Gordon State College

Barnesville, GA


Overview

  • Purpose of work

  • North Polar Cap (NPC)

  • Hellas

  • Brightness measurements


Purpose

  • NPC interannual variability

  • Hellas variability

    • Time of day

    • Year

    • season

  • Brightness (visible & Near infrared)


Hubble Image Processed by P. James, T. Clancy, S. Lee and NASA


Introduction: Ls


Voting Questions

  • Do not talk to anyone until after 1st vote

  • After 1st vote

    • Talk to someone that you disagree with

    • Convince him/her that you are right

    • Listen to your partner


Voting Question

  • If Ls = 135° it is ___________ in the northern hemisphere.

    a. late springb. mid spring

    c. early summerd. mid summer


Voting Question

Ls = 50° is similar to _______ in the USA.

a. Februaryb. June

c. Octoberd. May


Method and Materials

  • WinJupos

    • Name an image

      • 2014-07-12-1320-name & other info.

    • Load an image

    • Software computes longitude & latitude


Polar Cap MeasurementGoal: get all longitudes


NPC: Mean latitude


Hellas measurements

  • Northern border measured

    • Every 5° of longitude

    • 270° W to 320° W

    • Red light images used

    • Mean values computed for each 5° of longitude


Why red light?green-left & red-right


Results: NPC in 2013 – 2014


Interannual variability

  • Spring NPC

    • Mean latitudes (all longitudes) considered

    • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

      • 90% confidence level

      • As few as five values

      • Non-parametric test


Data sets

  • MGS: 2000, 2002, 2006*, 2007-08*

  • Schmude: 2009-10, 2011-12, 2013-14

  • Individual latitudes are not reported


Results


Voting Question

At Ls = 50°, the temperatures are __________ in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

a. risingb. falling


Hellas: white layer

  • Northern border

    • Clouds or frost?

    • Growth during fall?

    • Changes from morning to afternoon?

    • Interannual differences?


Hellas: white layer


Hellas: changes in Northern border

  • Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

    • Mid fall (1995) and late fall – early winter (2014)

    • Morning afternoon (2014)

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Statistical results: Hellas

  • There is no statistical difference (90% conf.)

    • Mid fall and late fall/early winter

    • Morning and afternoon

    • 2012 and 2014 (similar seasons)


Brightness Measurements

  • Purpose

    • Long-term changes

    • Water reservoirs

    • Dust storms

    • Brightness model of planet


Brightness in Magnitudes

  • Zero magnitude = a flux of light

  • As magnitude drops, brightness increases


Electromagnetic Radiation

  • Electric wave

  • Magnetic wave

  • Velocity = 186,000 miles/hour (vacuum)

  • Wavelength (length of one wave)


Electromagnetic radiationWavelength and color


Previous work

  • Schmude measured B, V, R and I brightness of Mars from 1991 to 2014

  • Mallama (2007) summarizes work up to 2005.

  • Almost no work done for J and H filters


Near Infrared light


Voting question

Please rank the objects from highest to lowest magnitude.

a. Sun, full Moon, Venus

b. Sun, Venus, full Moon

c. Full Moon, Venus, Sun

d. Venus, full Moon, Sun


Materials

  • SSP-4 photometer

  • CelestronCG-4 mount

  • 0.09 m Maksutov telescope

  • Extension cord (requires AC power)


Experimental set-up


Method of brightness measurement

  • Sky brightness and then comparison star

  • Sky brightness and then Mars

  • Repeat 2 ½ more times

  • Compute Mars’ magnitude

  • Make corrections


Normalized Magnitude J(1,0) and H(1,0)

  • Mars is 1 au from Earth and Sun

  • Sunlight reflects directly back to observer (zero phase angle)


Results: Albedo


Light curve J filter


Light curve H filter


Conclusions

  • NPC may undergo small changes from one year to the next

  • Hellas white area: No change with respect to diurnal, seasonal or year to year cycles

  • Mars’ albedo does not rise in near infrared

  • Mars brightens as it rotates in the J & H filters


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