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In the Name of God. Hardware Implementation of Transform & Quantization Blocks in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard. Custom Implementation of DSP Systems Class Seminar. All materials are copy rights of their respective authors as listed in references. By: Hoda Roodaki Instructor:

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Hardware implementation of transform quantization blocks in h 264 avc video coding standard

In the Name of God

Hardware Implementation of Transform & Quantization Blocks in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

Custom Implementation of DSP Systems Class Seminar. All materials are copy rights of their respective authors as listed in references

By:

HodaRoodaki

Instructor:

Dr. Fakhraei


Outline
Outline

  • Video Coding & Standardization

  • Video Coding Standards & Application

  • H.264/AVC (MPEG-10) Standard

  • H.264 Drawbacks

  • Proposed Method for 4x4 DCT, 8x8 DCT and Quantization

  • Concolusion


Video coding standardization
Video Coding & Standardization

  • Efficient digital representation of video signals has been the subject of considerable research over the past twenty years.

  • Availability of digital transmission links

  • Progress in signal processing

  • VLSI technology

  • Video compression research

Visual communications has become more feasible

Increased commercial interest in video communications

Standardization


Video coding standards application
Video Coding Standards & Application

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

  • MPEG1 (1988-1992)

    • Audio and video on storage media such as CDROM

  • MPEG2 (1993)

    • Digital TV: SDTV, HDTV

  • MPEG4 (1994)

    • A standard for very low bit rate coding of limited complexity audio-visual material

ITU-T Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG)

  • H.261 (1988-1990)

    • Videoconferencing, video-telephone applications over ISDN telephone lines

  • H.263 (1996)

    • mobile network


H 264 avc mpeg4 part10 standard
H.264/AVC (MPEG4-part10) Standard

  • In 2001

  • With the aim of developing a more efficient compression system,

VSEG

MPEG

Joint Video Team (JVT)


H 264 avc mpeg 10 standard
H.264/AVC (MPEG-10) Standard

  • Significant improvement in coding efficiency

    • Average bit rate reduction of 50% given fixed fidelity compared to any other video standard

  • Error robustness

  • Applications

    • Broadcast over cable, satellite, cable modem, DSL, terrestrial.

    • Interactive or serial storage on optical and magnetic storage devices, DVD, etc.

    • Conversational services over ISDN, Ethernet, LAN, DSL, wireless and mobile networks, modems.

    • Video-on-demand or multimedia streaming services over cable modem, DSL, ISDN, LAN, wireless networks.

    • Multimedia messaging services over DSL, ISDN.

  • Broad range of bit rates and picture sizesranging from very low bit rate, low frame rate video for mobile and dial-up devices through to entertainment-quality standard-definition television services, HDTV, and beyond.


  • H 264 drawbacks
    H.264 Drawbacks

    • These aggressive compression techniques increase computational complexity and need an efficient architecture to implement these techniques

    • Quantization & Transformation blocks are two critical parts of encoder

    We need some methods that simplifies these blocks

    Real Time Applications


    Proposed method for 4x4 dct 1
    Proposed Method for 4x4 DCT [1]

    • The forward 4x4 DCT of a sample block






    Proposed method for 4x4 dct evaluation1
    Proposed Method for 4x4 DCT Evaluation

    • Synthesized with Xilinx Project Navigator 10.01 for Xilinx Virtex 5 (xc5vlx30).


    Proposed method for 8x8 dct 2
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT [2]

    • Initial H.264 specification adopted an integer approximation of 4×4.

    • But the 4×4 block is not enough higher resolutions

    8x8 DCT

    Additional Complexity

    Significant Compression Performance



    Proposed method for 8x8 dct cont1
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT(Cont.)

    • The 2-D forward 8x8

      • 1-D horizontal (row) transform

      • 1-D vertical (column) transform





    Proposed method for 8x8 dct cont5
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT(Cont.)

    Architecture of Proposed Algorithm [2]


    Proposed method for 8x8 dct cont6
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT(Cont.)

    1-D Transform Block [2]




    Proposed method for 8x8 dct quantization evaluation
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT & Quantization - Evaluation

    • In the architecture

      • Each input column vector of 8 pixels is input to the 1-D DCT block for 8 cycles => 64 cycles are required to process all pixel elements in one 8×8 block

      • Without multiplication

      • The pixel by pixel processing can remove redundant modules processing in integer transform block and quantization block.

      • Quantization block is designed to cover all multiplication factors without using a real multiplier.


    Proposed method for 8x8 dct quantization evaluation1
    Proposed Method for 8x8 DCT & Quantization - Evaluation

    • The target device chosen is Xilinx Virtex-II Pro XC2VP30 FPGA.

    90% area reduction in Proposed Method

    [2]


    Conclusion
    Conclusion

    • The continuing development of digital video coding has produced H.264/MPEG-4 (Part 10) Advanced Video Coding.

    • It provides gains in compression efficiency of up to 50% over a wide range of bit rates and video resolutions compared to previous standards

    • Besides, network friendliness and good video quality at high and low bit rates are important features that distinguish H.264 from other standards.

    • These advantages are paid with a considerably higher need of computational complexity.


    Conclusion1
    Conclusion

    • To implement DCT and quantization blocks for H.264, many efforts have been carried out.

    • 4x4 DCT => a method without any multiplication

      • less complex and definitely faster than typical method

    • 8x8 DCT => a pipeline method Without multiplication for DCT & Quantization

      • Less complex and less area than parallel method but slower


    References
    References

    • [1] Nandi, S.; Rajan, K.; Biswas, P. “Hardware implementation of 4×4 DCT/quantization block using multiplication and error-free algorithm”, TENCON 2009.

    • [2] Jeoong Sung Park; Ogunfunmi, T. “A New Hardware Implementation Of The H.264 8×8 Transform And Quantization”, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2009.

    • [3] Mohammad Norouzi, Karim Mohammadi, Mohammad Mahdy Azadfar,” Multiplication and Error Free Implementation of H.264 like 4x4 DCT/Quan_IQuan/IDCT using Algebraic Integer Encoding”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.6 No.9B, September 2006.

    • [4] Iain E G Richardson, “H.264 / MPEG-4 Part 10 White Paper : Transform & Quantization”, vcodex, 2003.

    • [5] Thomas Wiegand, Gary J. Sullivan, Gisle Bjontegaard, and Ajay Luthra, “Overview of the H.264 / AVC Video Coding Standard”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, JULY 2003.

    • [6] Thomas Sikora,” Digital Video Coding Standards and Their Role in Video Communications”, Signal Processing for Multimedia. J.S. Byrnes (Ed.) IOS Press, 1999.



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