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JOBTALKS. Three Types of Interview Methods. Indiana University Kelley School of Business C. Randall Powell, Ph.D. Contents used in this presentation are adapted from Career Planning Strategies and used with the permission of the author. Interview Methods Knowledge Influences Results.

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Jobtalks

JOBTALKS

Three Types of Interview Methods

Indiana UniversityKelley School of BusinessC. Randall Powell, Ph.D

Contents used in this presentation are adapted from Career Planning Strategies

and used with the permission of the author.


Interview methods knowledge influences results

Interview Methods Knowledge Influences Results


Three basic interview methods

Three Basic Interview Methods

  • Traits (very common)

  • Behavioral (most common for professionals)

  • Case (least common-professionals only)

  • Combination of above


What is a trait interview

What is a Trait Interview?

  • It is an interview used to summarize a person’s characteristics.

  • Attempts to understand people and their motivations.


Trait interviews

Trait Interviews

  • Typical Question

    • “What is your best quality?”

  • Typical Response

    • “I’m a people person.”

    • “I’m a hard worker.”


What is a behavioral interview

What is a Behavioral Interview?

It is an interview designed to probe the skills needed to perform a specific job.


Behavior

Behavior

Anything that a person does that can be observed and measured. The focus is to predict, rather than to understand a behavior.


Traits vs behavior

Descriptions of Traits

“I am reliable.”

“I am good with people.”

“I am a leader.”

Descriptions of Past Behavior

“I have only missed one day of work in 15 years.”

“Last week, I settled a dispute between two co-workers. They now understand each other’s differences and are working well together.”

I was elected president of (Student Organization) out of 400 candidates. While I was president we increased membership by 20%, instituted an assessment tool of our meetings , and continuously improved the quality of our meetings.”

Traits vs. Behavior


Case interviews

Case Interviews

A way to assess a person’s ability to synthesize information and recommend a solution.

Assess Analytical Reasoning Ability

(used to assess high level professionals only)


Case interviews1

Case Interviews

  • Typical Question

    • “If you are the leader of a team and two members are constantly arguing, how would you handle the situation?”


Interview method comparison

Interview Method Comparison


Multinational organizations using behavioral interviewing

Arthur Anderson

McDonalds

J.C. Penney

Citicorp

General Motors

Cummins Engine Company

Eli Lilly

Coca Cola

Phillip Morris

Motorola

Ernst & Young

Kraft Foods

Multinational Organizations Using Behavioral Interviewing

Etc. . . .


Why are so many organizations using behavioral interviewing

Why are so many organizations using Behavioral Interviewing?

  • Improves the hiring decisions

  • Improves retention

  • Reduces discrimination

  • Lowers recruiting costs


What process does an organization use

What Process Does An Organization Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Starting point job analysis

Starting Point: Job Analysis

  • Talk to subject matter experts (managers, peers, etc.)

  • Determine key responsibilities

  • Identify technical/job skills versus performance skills

  • Job analysis is typically done by the HR department


Example business analyst at target corporation

Example: Business Analyst at Target Corporation

Position:Business Analyst

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1.Inventory Management: Manages department(s) inventory to achieve department turnover goals. Manages the Open to Buy (OTB) dollars and directs the inventory adjustments required to maximize sales, turnover and profits.

2.Merchandise Allocation: Manages and maintains effective department(s) product flow and allocation for assigned product classification by store. Develops effective flow and allocation strategies and completes analysis of sales history by season, adjacency, planogram, and class category/item. Maintains store in stocks through the use of Target replenishment systems.

3.Financial Planning: Prepares and reviews with Buyer and seasonal, advertising, monthly sales, markdown and inventory forecasts and plans for the department(s) or assigned product classifications.

4.Item/Assortment Planning: Directs and provides historical analysis for the development of department/item/assortment plans to include volume, productivity, trends and “fit.”

5.Communications: Provides responsive communication to Stores, Vendors, Customers, Distribution Centers, Merchandise Planning, Buying and support pyramids.

6.Vendor Relations: Resolves freight shipment issues to maintain efficient supply of merchandise to the Stores and Distribution Centers.

7.Special Projects: Participates in special projects and task forces for the company.


What process does a company use

What Process Does a Company Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Select critical skills

Select Critical Skills

  • Prioritize top 6-8 technical vs. performance skills

  • Technical skills are specific knowledge or tools required to perform the job

  • Performance skills are transferable skills that can be used on any job

  • Develop definitions for each skill


Examples of technical skills

Examples of Technical Skills

  • University Degree in ______

  • Excel, Dreamweaver, Java

  • CPA or CMA or JD

  • Language exams

  • Licenses


Select critical skills1

Select Critical Skills

  • Prioritize top 6-8 technical vs. performance skills

  • Technical skills are specific knowledge or tools required to perform the job

  • Performance skills are transferable skills that can be used on any job

  • Develop definitions for each skill


Examples of performance skills

Adaptability/flexibility

Analytical/problem solving

Decision making

Continuous learning and growth

Commitment to task/tenacity

Communication

Customer orientation

Tolerance of ambiguity

Goal setting

Teamwork/collaboration

Leadership

Initiative

Organization and planning

People skills/interaction

Attention to detail

Assertiveness

Creativity

Versatility

Examples of Performance Skills


Merchandising at target headquarters

Merchandising at Target Headquarters

  • SKILLS AND ABILITIES DESIRED

  • College degree with above average grades

  • Excellent analytical skills

  • Strong planning and organizational skills

  • Excellent verbal and written communication skills

  • Strong computer skills in …_________________

  • Retail experience or interest

  • Demonstrated leadership skills

  • Assertive and flexible


Select critical skills2

Select Critical Skills

  • Prioritize top 6-8 technical vs. performance skills

  • Technical skills are specific knowledge or tools required to perform the job

  • Performance skills are transferable skills that can be used on any job

  • Develop definitions for each skill


Business analyst characteristics

Business Analyst Characteristics

1)Number Skills - ability to quickly and accurately perform simple arithmetic computations and recognize relationships between quantities.

2)Reasoning/Creative Problem Solving Skills - ability to draw accurate conclusions from quantitative material, to recognize patterns, to go beyond the numbers to their retail implications, and find the best solution possible. Ability to “think outside the box.”

3)Perceptiveness and Attention to Detail - tendency to “dig into the details” thoroughly, ability to recognize important details.

4)Organizing, Prioritizing, and Follow Through - ability to set effective priorities, keep orderly records, handle many tasks at once without letting things fall through the cracks, keep track of deadlines, follow-up.


Business analyst characteristics1

Business Analyst Characteristics

5)People Skills - need not to be overly social or outgoing, but must develop effective working relationships with manager, team members, merchandising and the field.

6)Assertive Communication Skills (oral and written) - ability to get point across effectively, concisely and authoritatively.

7)System Aptitude - tolerance of computer work, aptitude to experiment with systems.

8)Ability to Work Under Pressure - ability to operate effectively under time constraints, changing priorities and maintain equilibrium under pressure from others.

9)Motivation - tendency to work hard, put forth extra effort and produce high volumes of work efficiently.


What process does a company use1

What Process Does a Company Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Develop questions

Develop Questions

  • The purpose of questions is to generate responses that can be used to evaluate an individuals job-related skills

  • Several open ended questions will be developed for every skill identified


Examples of questions

Examples of Questions

  • Enumerate the analytical tools with which you feel competent. Then give me an example which shows your ability to use analytical techniques to define problems or design solutions.

  • Give me an example of a time when you have used tools such as survey data library research, or statistics.

Analytical Skills


Prepare questions

Prepare Questions

  • Decision making

  • Initiative

  • Teamwork

  • Communication

  • Continuous learning and growth


Decision making

Decision Making

- What process do you use to make decisions?

-- How do you go about collecting data?

--- Who do you involve in making

decisions or collecting data?

---- Give me an example of a

difficult decision you have

made?


Communication

Communication

- What has been your experience in making presentations or speeches?

-- Tell me about a specific experience of yours

that illustrates your ability to influence

another person?

--- How important are verbal communications

skills?

----What results have you seen from good

communication?


What process does a company use2

What Process Does a Company Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Conduct a 30 minute interview

Conduct a 30-minute Interview

  • Introduction

  • Overview of company and position

  • Questioning of candidate skills

  • Time for candidate to ask questions

  • Close and next steps


What process does a company use3

What Process Does a Company Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Analytical skill question

Analytical Skill Question

Question:

Enumerate the analytical tools with which you feel competent. Then give me an example which shows your ability to use analytical techniques to define problems or design solutions.


Examples of answers

Examples of Answers:

I’m good at Excel and have done several spreadsheets during my internship.


Examples of answers1

Examples of Answers:

I’m proficient at Excel, and many other software programs. During my internship this summer with Supercorp, I realized that the profit margins were low on several products. I created a spreadsheet for all products that showed gross sales, allowances, net sales, COGS, and gross margin by product. The controller liked it so well that I was asked to present it to the sales team and explain what the data meant and how they could use it while making their sales decisions.


Which response is best and why

Which response is best and why?


Jobtalks

STAR

Situation/Task

  • Explains the circumstances

    Action

  • Describes what the person did

    Result

  • Describes the outcome of the action


Examples of answers2

Examples of Answers:

I’m good at Excel and have done several spreadsheets during my internship.

Situation/Task -Poor

Action -Weak

Result - None


Examples of answers3

Examples of Answers:

I’m proficient at Excel, and many other software programs. During my internship this summer with Supercorp, I realized that the profit margins were low on several products. I created a spreadsheet for all products that showed gross sales, allowances, net sales, COGS, and gross margin by product. The controller liked it so well that I was asked to present it to the sales team and explain what the data meant and how they could use it while making their sales decisions.

ST

A

R


Interview rating sheet

Interview Rating Sheet

Position _________________ Name of Candidate __________________

Date ___________________ Name of Interviewer __________________

The Performance SkillsStrongA lot ofSomeLittleNo

to be evaluated include:EvidenceEvidenceEvidenceEvidenceEvidence

1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________

6. _________________


Interview rating sheet1

Interview Rating Sheet

The Technical/Job SkillsStrongA lot ofSomeLittleNo

to be evaluated include:EvidenceEvidenceEvidenceEvidenceEvidence

1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________

6. _________________

Recommendation:Hire/Promote ________Not Hire/Promote _______

Reason for Recommendation:_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________


What process does a company use4

What Process Does a Company Use?

Consensus meeting

Rate skills

Conduct interviews

Develop questions

Select critical skills

Job analysis


Consensus meeting

Consensus Meeting

Candidates

Skills Joe LisaChrisJohnSarah

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

Total:

Analytical


Interview tips

Interview Tips

  • Advance Preparation

    • Research company & industry

    • Know your goals

    • Know yourself

  • Turn a Trait Interview into a Behavioral Interview

  • Prepare Star Responses

  • Prepare Questions


Jobtalks

If you would like to learn more, Career Planning Strategies textbook will supply additional information on this topic.


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