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GRAZING TASK INSIGHTS. Changes in writing style : Battle-fatigued soldiers referred to as "burdens to the Army" Changes in permissible topics " The vampire kith and kin" Nature, 1929

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GRAZING TASK INSIGHTS

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GRAZING TASK

INSIGHTS

Changes in writing style: Battle-fatigued soldiers referred to as "burdens to the Army"

Changes in permissible topics "The vampire kith and kin"Nature, 1929

Evolution of field, e.g. neuroimaging starts with animals, now address musicality,Rate of change in 10-15 yrs.

Obsolescence of hard-copies: new volumes no longer offered in stacks.

Sensory aspect of library: "The 'feel' of touching embossed letters of books", "the smell of old books filled the air."

Grazing and serendipity: From "Learning and memory" to "American Sea Songs"

Serenity of library search: "Look...without the blaring '10,000 articles returned'", "Calming to sit and read."

The poignancy of "forgotten work" : "the older volumes were stuck together; it was as if they hadn't been touched in years."

The price of on-line "efficiency": loss of "what it felt like to ...search...the stacks."


THEORY AND SEEING

HMAS Sydney Sunk in Indian Ocean 1941;

Found (in part) Via Cog. Psychology 2008

http://www.npr.org/2011/09/27/140816037/how-psychology-solved-a-wwii-shipwreck-mystery

Bartlett's War of the Ghosts schema research, ca. 1930

Create "deviation maps" from Bartlett's original subjects

Apply same method to German sailors' stories


Class 6

Concepts and Variables (concluded)


Most General Hypothesis

Interracial feedback is biased.

General Hypothesis

Feedback from whites to blacks is positively biased.

Specific Hypothesis

When whites provide performancefeedback for sub-standard work, their feedback will be positively biased if they believe that the feedback recipient is black rather than white.

Experimental Hypothesis

White undergraduatesinstructed to critiquepoorly written essays for purposes of feedback will provide more positive feedback if informed that the essay writer is black rather than white.

Experiments as Expressions of Hypotheses


Diagramming the Experimental Sentence

White undergraduate students instructed to critiquepoorly written essays for ...feedback will provide more positive feedback if informed that the writer is Black rather than White.

Operational Definition

Students who identify themselves as White, not Hispanic, on a survey.

write comments on spelling, content, etc. on the essay

essays contain 5 spelling errors, 14 grammar errors, 5 content errors

subjects’ copy edited comments on essays are supposedly returned to the writer

no. of positive comments – no. of neg. comments

subjects read “self description sheet” supposedly completed by writer that indirectly indicates race, and confirmed by post-expt. manipulation check.

Construct

White undergraduate students

instructed to critique

poorly written essays

for … feedback

will provide more positive feedback if

informed that the writer is Black rather than White


Lending a Hand: Social Regulation of the Neural Response to Threat

[Coan, J., Schaefer, H., & Davidson, R., (2006) Psych. Science, 17, 1032-1039]

...For this fMRI study, 16 married women were subjected to the threat of electric shock while holding their husband’s hand, the hand of an anonymous male experimenter, or no hand at all. Results indicated an attenuation of activation [in systems regulating threat] when women held their husband’s hand. Most strikingly, the effects of spousal hand-holding on neural threat varied as a function of marital quality ... .

What’s the hypothesis? What are the constructs, the IV, the DV, the operations?


Attributes and Aliases of IV and DV

Independent Variable (IV)

Dependent Variable (DV)

Effect

Cause

Consequent

Antecedent

Event that E. tries to predict

Event that E. controls or selects

Change in “Y”

Change in “X” 


Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Race of feedback partners  Feedback bias

Social context  Moral choices

(NY vs. Ghakistan)

NOTE: IV can be DV can be IV

IVDV

Group pressure  Conformity

Conformity  Feedback bias


Active vs. Attributive Variables

Active (manipulated): Variables that are manipulated by the experimenter

Friendliness of the confederate

Quality of essay

Attributive (measured): Variables that cannot be manipulated, but are inherent properties.

AKA "organismic variables."

Gender of confederate

Age of subject


Latent Variables

Latent variables are variables that cannot be directly measured.

Latent variables are “emergent” – they arise from the joint association of more particular, measurable variables.

Latent variables are sometimes referred to as “factors”

Factor analysis is method used to discover and confirm latent variables.


Latent Variables in Feedback Study:

Essay Mechanics =??????

????? =Development of argument, clarity of ideas, quality of evidence, interestingpresentation, persuasive


Latent Variables in Feedback Study: Mechanics vs. Content

Mechanics:Spelling, grammar, word choice

Content:Development of argument, clarity of ideas, quality of evidence, interestingpresentation, persuasive


SPSS Factor Analysis Results


Factor Loadings of Two Factor Measure: Social Support Opinion Survey


Social Support Opinion Survey (Harber, et al., JASP, 38, 1463-1505)


NAME THAT VARIABLE

Age induces wisdom. Age is?

Independent Variable

Arousal induced by 50 jumping jacks. Arousal is?

Active Variable

Left-handed vs. Right handed

Attributive Variable

Like self + believe in self + rely on self + listen to self = Esteem

Latent Variable

Health is affected by exercise. Health is?

Dependent Variable


Moderators and Mediators

Class 7


Breaking News: Mud Improves Memory!!!

FLASH! Explorers in the Amazon have discovered an amazing “memory mud”. When smeared on the forehead it vastly improves short term memory. However, it appears that “mem-mud” works only for certain kinds of people in certain places at certain times. The mud appears to have its powerful effects because it ……[SIGNAL LOST].

What questions arise?

Who does it work for, under what conditions, at what times?

Why does it work?


Moderators, Mediators, and Mem-mud

Moderator:What are the conditions under which Mem-mud works, and for whom does it work?

Mediator:Why does Mem-mud work

Moderator: The limiting conditions that determine and effect or outcome (e.g., when, or for whom)

Mediator: The underlying cause; Why something occurs.


MODERATOR DEFINED

A moderator is a variable that affects the direction or strength of the relationship between a predictor (IV) and an outcome (DV).

A  B, if C is a moderator model.

A = Predictor

B = Outcome

C = Moderator

Changes in the moderator will affect the relation between IV and DV.  

Moderators directly explain how and when events occur (but can also indirectly indicate why they occur).

Moderator can be:

* qualitative variable (race, sex, etc.)

* quantitative variable (perceived risk, mood)


MODERATOR DEFINED, Cont.

Moderator is always an Independent Variable

Moderator should be un-correlated to DV

Moderators sought when there is weak or inconsistent relationship between IV and DV.

Moderator confirmed only if interaction between moderator and main IV is significant.


Uncontrollable Event

(World Economy Fails)

Controllable Event

(Made Bad Investments)

Event ↔ illness

r = .56

Event ↔ illness

r = .18

Moderation: Correlation Between IV and DV is High in One Condition But Not in Another.

These two results say what about bad events and illness?

Major life events  increased illness, IF event is uncontrollable.

Moderator is?

CONTROLLABILITY


MODERATOR MODEL

Predictor (IV)

Moderators (IV)

Outcome Variable (DV)

Predictor X Moderator

P X M Interaction Must be significant

Recipient race (IV)

Self-image risk(IV)

Feedback Positivity (DV)

Race X Risk

p < .005


Feedback Bias With and Without

Content/Mechanics as Moderator


Moderator “Recipes”

a. IV is qualitative (dichotomous, polychotomous, Mod. is qualitatitve (dichotomous, polychotomous)

b. IV is qualitative, Mod. is quantitative

c. IV is quantitative, Mod. is qualitative

d. IV is quantitative, Mod. is quantitative


Social Context, Disclosure, and Baby Cries

Primary IV?

Social Contact

Moderator

Disclosure

DV?

Distress Rating

Recipe?

IV is Qualitative, and Moderator is Qualitative


Height Perception as Function of Social ContactAdapted from Schnall, Harber, Stefanucci, & Proffitt, 2008;Results amplified for purposes of illustration

Primary IV?

Social Contact

Moderator

Duration

DV?

Hill slant

Recipe?

IV is Qualitative, and Moderator is Quantitative


Primary IV?

Depression

Moderator

Gender

DV?

Endorsement of Directive Support

Recipe?

IV is Quantitative, and Moderator is Qualitative


Self Esteem and the Use of Affect as Information

(Harber, 2005)

Mild upset = 1 SD < mean, Moderate upset = mean, Extreme upset = 1 SD > mean.

Primary IV?

Upset

Moderator

Esteem

DV?

Baby Cry Ratings

Recipe?

IV is Qualitative and Moderator is Qualitative


MEDIATION

1. History: S  R explanations do not address full range of psychological phenomena. In many cases, SOR makes more sense.

2. Function: Mediational analyses designed to test for SOR causal paths.

3. Mediation Defined: “the effects of stimuli on behavior are mediated by various transformations internal to the organism.”

4. Utility: Mediators directly explain why events occur (but can also provide clues to how and when they occur).

5. Character: Mediators are latent variables, or latent constructs.


Attributes of Mediators

1. Changes in IV account for changes in mediator

2. Changes in mediator account for changes in DV.

3. When links between IV to Mediator, and between Mediator to DV are established, the link between IV and DV becomes non-significant, or becomes significantly decreased.


Mediational Model

Mediator

a

b

c

DV

IV

When Mediation is present:

r (a) is significant

r (b) is significant

r ( c ), which was significant before the mediator was included, is either not significant or is much weaker

after mediator is included.


Self-Image Concerns

a

b

c

Positive Bias

Race of Recipient

Mediational Model and Feedback Studies


RELATION BETWEEN

MODERATORS AND MEDIATORS

Moderator to mediator: Knowing how external variables affect outcomes can imply the existence of mediators.

Mediator to Moderator: Knowing why underlying mechanism affects outcomes can suggest ways of addressing, remedying, altering the outcome.


Why Do People Need Self Esteem?

Converging Evidence that Self Esteem Provides an Anxiety-Buffering Function

Greenberg, et al., 2000

Three studies were conducted to assess the proposition that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function. In Study 1, it was hypothesized that raising self-esteem would reduce anxiety in response to vivid images of death. In support of this hypothesis, subjects who received positive personality feedback reported less anxiety in response to a video about death than did neutral feedback subjects. …. .

X

____Moderator

____Mediator


Greenberg, et al. 2000

Scary Images

+

Self Esteem

0

Anxiety

+++

Scary Images X Self Esteem


Anxiety as a Function of

Threat Salience and Level of Self Esteem

Greenberg, et al., 2000


Visceral Perception and Nonconscious Fear Conditioning

Katkin, Wiens, & Öhman, 2001

Previous research shows that people conditioned to fear certain kinds of stimuli such as snakes or spiders are subsequently better able to detect hidden images of these stimuli compared to people who are not conditioned. The current research predicts that this heightened sensitivity is restricted to people who are good at detecting their own heartbeats (good heartbeat monitors). This prediction was confirmed; when good heartbeat monitors are excluded from analysis the effect of fear conditioning on stimuli sensitivity disappears. [ABSTRACT MODIFIED ]

X

____Moderator

____Mediator


Katkin, Wiens, & Öhman, 2001

Heartbeat Monitors

a

b

c

Stimuli Sensitivity

Conditioned Fear


Ultimate Mediation?

The Epistemological Challenge of Science 

Multiple underlying causes:

Disclosure --> Emotional resolution --> less stress --> immune boost --> health

Race of recipient --> egalitarian concerns --> self-image concerns --> bias

Ultimate underlying causes:

Disclosure ---> coping (Pennebaker, 1989)

Disclosure --> [????] --> coping

Disclosure --> self-affirmation --> coping (Cresswell, et al., 2007)

Disclosure --> self-affirmation --> [????] --> coping


Path Analyses and Causal Models

  • Attend. in 21st Century program  improved performance by minority students.

  • 21st Century program based on theory of stereotype-threat. When threat is high, minority students do less well.

  • Stereotype threat is itself a problem because it causes minority students to disidentify with academics.

    What is the causal model? What would be strong and weak correlational links in this model?


First Semester Grades as Predicted by Stereotype Threat, Identification with School, and Participation in 21st Century Program

ID with School

Stereo. Threat

21st Cent. Prog.

Grades

Task: What are IVs, DVs?

What are moderators (if any)?

What mediators (if any)?

Put these in correct path

Estimate relations between variables, outcome


21st Century Program, Stereotype Threat, and Identification with School


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