GRAZING TASK INSIGHTS. Changes in writing style : Battle-fatigued soldiers referred to as "burdens to the Army" Changes in permissible topics " The vampire kith and kin" Nature, 1929
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Changes in writing style: Battle-fatigued soldiers referred to as "burdens to the Army"
Changes in permissible topics "The vampire kith and kin"Nature, 1929
Evolution of field, e.g. neuroimaging starts with animals, now address musicality,Rate of change in 10-15 yrs.
Obsolescence of hard-copies: new volumes no longer offered in stacks.
Sensory aspect of library: "The 'feel' of touching embossed letters of books", "the smell of old books filled the air."
Grazing and serendipity: From "Learning and memory" to "American Sea Songs"
Serenity of library search: "Look...without the blaring '10,000 articles returned'", "Calming to sit and read."
The poignancy of "forgotten work" : "the older volumes were stuck together; it was as if they hadn't been touched in years."
The price of on-line "efficiency": loss of "what it felt like to ...search...the stacks."
THEORY AND SEEING
HMAS Sydney Sunk in Indian Ocean 1941;
Found (in part) Via Cog. Psychology 2008
Bartlett's War of the Ghosts schema research, ca. 1930
Create "deviation maps" from Bartlett's original subjects
Apply same method to German sailors' stories
Concepts and Variables (concluded)
Most General Hypothesis
Interracial feedback is biased.
Feedback from whites to blacks is positively biased.
When whites provide performancefeedback for sub-standard work, their feedback will be positively biased if they believe that the feedback recipient is black rather than white.
White undergraduatesinstructed to critiquepoorly written essays for purposes of feedback will provide more positive feedback if informed that the essay writer is black rather than white.
Experiments as Expressions of Hypotheses
Diagramming the Experimental Sentence
White undergraduate students instructed to critiquepoorly written essays for ...feedback will provide more positive feedback if informed that the writer is Black rather than White.
Students who identify themselves as White, not Hispanic, on a survey.
write comments on spelling, content, etc. on the essay
essays contain 5 spelling errors, 14 grammar errors, 5 content errors
subjects’ copy edited comments on essays are supposedly returned to the writer
no. of positive comments – no. of neg. comments
subjects read “self description sheet” supposedly completed by writer that indirectly indicates race, and confirmed by post-expt. manipulation check.
White undergraduate students
instructed to critique
poorly written essays
for … feedback
will provide more positive feedback if
informed that the writer is Black rather than White
Lending a Hand: Social Regulation of the Neural Response to Threat
[Coan, J., Schaefer, H., & Davidson, R., (2006) Psych. Science, 17, 1032-1039]
...For this fMRI study, 16 married women were subjected to the threat of electric shock while holding their husband’s hand, the hand of an anonymous male experimenter, or no hand at all. Results indicated an attenuation of activation [in systems regulating threat] when women held their husband’s hand. Most strikingly, the effects of spousal hand-holding on neural threat varied as a function of marital quality ... .
What’s the hypothesis? What are the constructs, the IV, the DV, the operations?
Attributes and Aliases of IV and DV
Independent Variable (IV)
Dependent Variable (DV)
Event that E. tries to predict
Event that E. controls or selects
Change in “Y”
Change in “X”
Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Race of feedback partners Feedback bias
Social context Moral choices
(NY vs. Ghakistan)
NOTE: IV can be DV can be IV
Group pressure Conformity
Conformity Feedback bias
Active vs. Attributive Variables
Active (manipulated): Variables that are manipulated by the experimenter
Friendliness of the confederate
Quality of essay
Attributive (measured): Variables that cannot be manipulated, but are inherent properties.
AKA "organismic variables."
Gender of confederate
Age of subject
Latent variables are variables that cannot be directly measured.
Latent variables are “emergent” – they arise from the joint association of more particular, measurable variables.
Latent variables are sometimes referred to as “factors”
Factor analysis is method used to discover and confirm latent variables.
Latent Variables in Feedback Study:
Essay Mechanics =??????
????? =Development of argument, clarity of ideas, quality of evidence, interestingpresentation, persuasive
Latent Variables in Feedback Study: Mechanics vs. Content
Mechanics:Spelling, grammar, word choice
Content:Development of argument, clarity of ideas, quality of evidence, interestingpresentation, persuasive
SPSS Factor Analysis Results
Factor Loadings of Two Factor Measure: Social Support Opinion Survey
Social Support Opinion Survey (Harber, et al., JASP, 38, 1463-1505)
NAME THAT VARIABLE
Age induces wisdom. Age is?
Arousal induced by 50 jumping jacks. Arousal is?
Left-handed vs. Right handed
Like self + believe in self + rely on self + listen to self = Esteem
Health is affected by exercise. Health is?
Moderators and Mediators
Breaking News: Mud Improves Memory!!!
FLASH! Explorers in the Amazon have discovered an amazing “memory mud”. When smeared on the forehead it vastly improves short term memory. However, it appears that “mem-mud” works only for certain kinds of people in certain places at certain times. The mud appears to have its powerful effects because it ……[SIGNAL LOST].
What questions arise?
Who does it work for, under what conditions, at what times?
Why does it work?
Moderator:What are the conditions under which Mem-mud works, and for whom does it work?
Mediator:Why does Mem-mud work
Moderator: The limiting conditions that determine and effect or outcome (e.g., when, or for whom)
Mediator: The underlying cause; Why something occurs.
A moderator is a variable that affects the direction or strength of the relationship between a predictor (IV) and an outcome (DV).
A B, if C is a moderator model.
A = Predictor
B = Outcome
C = Moderator
Changes in the moderator will affect the relation between IV and DV.
Moderators directly explain how and when events occur (but can also indirectly indicate why they occur).
Moderator can be:
* qualitative variable (race, sex, etc.)
* quantitative variable (perceived risk, mood)
MODERATOR DEFINED, Cont.
Moderator is always an Independent Variable
Moderator should be un-correlated to DV
Moderators sought when there is weak or inconsistent relationship between IV and DV.
Moderator confirmed only if interaction between moderator and main IV is significant.
(World Economy Fails)
(Made Bad Investments)
Event ↔ illness
r = .56
Event ↔ illness
r = .18
Moderation: Correlation Between IV and DV is High in One Condition But Not in Another.
These two results say what about bad events and illness?
Major life events increased illness, IF event is uncontrollable.
Outcome Variable (DV)
Predictor X Moderator
P X M Interaction Must be significant
Recipient race (IV)
Feedback Positivity (DV)
Race X Risk
p < .005
Feedback Bias With and Without
Content/Mechanics as Moderator
a. IV is qualitative (dichotomous, polychotomous, Mod. is qualitatitve (dichotomous, polychotomous)
b. IV is qualitative, Mod. is quantitative
c. IV is quantitative, Mod. is qualitative
d. IV is quantitative, Mod. is quantitative
Social Context, Disclosure, and Baby Cries
IV is Qualitative, and Moderator is Qualitative
Height Perception as Function of Social ContactAdapted from Schnall, Harber, Stefanucci, & Proffitt, 2008;Results amplified for purposes of illustration
IV is Qualitative, and Moderator is Quantitative
Endorsement of Directive Support
IV is Quantitative, and Moderator is Qualitative
Self Esteem and the Use of Affect as Information
Mild upset = 1 SD < mean, Moderate upset = mean, Extreme upset = 1 SD > mean.
Baby Cry Ratings
IV is Qualitative and Moderator is Qualitative
1. History: S R explanations do not address full range of psychological phenomena. In many cases, SOR makes more sense.
2. Function: Mediational analyses designed to test for SOR causal paths.
3. Mediation Defined: “the effects of stimuli on behavior are mediated by various transformations internal to the organism.”
4. Utility: Mediators directly explain why events occur (but can also provide clues to how and when they occur).
5. Character: Mediators are latent variables, or latent constructs.
Attributes of Mediators
1. Changes in IV account for changes in mediator
2. Changes in mediator account for changes in DV.
3. When links between IV to Mediator, and between Mediator to DV are established, the link between IV and DV becomes non-significant, or becomes significantly decreased.
When Mediation is present:
r (a) is significant
r (b) is significant
r ( c ), which was significant before the mediator was included, is either not significant or is much weaker
after mediator is included.
Race of Recipient
Mediational Model and Feedback Studies
MODERATORS AND MEDIATORS
Moderator to mediator: Knowing how external variables affect outcomes can imply the existence of mediators.
Mediator to Moderator: Knowing why underlying mechanism affects outcomes can suggest ways of addressing, remedying, altering the outcome.
Why Do People Need Self Esteem?
Converging Evidence that Self Esteem Provides an Anxiety-Buffering Function
Greenberg, et al., 2000
Three studies were conducted to assess the proposition that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function. In Study 1, it was hypothesized that raising self-esteem would reduce anxiety in response to vivid images of death. In support of this hypothesis, subjects who received positive personality feedback reported less anxiety in response to a video about death than did neutral feedback subjects. …. .
Greenberg, et al. 2000
Scary Images X Self Esteem
Anxiety as a Function of
Threat Salience and Level of Self Esteem
Greenberg, et al., 2000
Visceral Perception and Nonconscious Fear Conditioning
Katkin, Wiens, & Öhman, 2001
Previous research shows that people conditioned to fear certain kinds of stimuli such as snakes or spiders are subsequently better able to detect hidden images of these stimuli compared to people who are not conditioned. The current research predicts that this heightened sensitivity is restricted to people who are good at detecting their own heartbeats (good heartbeat monitors). This prediction was confirmed; when good heartbeat monitors are excluded from analysis the effect of fear conditioning on stimuli sensitivity disappears. [ABSTRACT MODIFIED ]
Katkin, Wiens, & Öhman, 2001
The Epistemological Challenge of Science
Multiple underlying causes:
Disclosure --> Emotional resolution --> less stress --> immune boost --> health
Race of recipient --> egalitarian concerns --> self-image concerns --> bias
Ultimate underlying causes:
Disclosure ---> coping (Pennebaker, 1989)
Disclosure --> [????] --> coping
Disclosure --> self-affirmation --> coping (Cresswell, et al., 2007)
Disclosure --> self-affirmation --> [????] --> coping
What is the causal model? What would be strong and weak correlational links in this model?
First Semester Grades as Predicted by Stereotype Threat, Identification with School, and Participation in 21st Century Program
ID with School
21st Cent. Prog.
Task: What are IVs, DVs?
What are moderators (if any)?
What mediators (if any)?
Put these in correct path
Estimate relations between variables, outcome
21st Century Program, Stereotype Threat, and Identification with School