Finnic languages and cultures in ingria
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FINNIC LANGUAGES AND CULTURES IN INGRIA. Fedor Rozhanskiy [email protected] Finno-Ugric. Mordvinian Mari Permic Lappic (Saami). Northern. Finno-Permic. Ugric. Southern. Finnish. Khanty Mansi Hungarian. Estonian. Karelian. Livvi. Livonian. Ludian. Votic. Veps. Ingrian.

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FINNIC LANGUAGES AND CULTURES IN INGRIA

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Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

FINNIC LANGUAGES AND CULTURES IN INGRIA

FedorRozhanskiy

[email protected]


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Finno-Ugric

  • Mordvinian

  • Mari

  • Permic

  • Lappic (Saami)

Northern

Finno-Permic

Ugric

Southern

  • Finnish

  • Khanty

  • Mansi

  • Hungarian

  • Estonian

  • Karelian

  • Livvi

  • Livonian

  • Ludian

  • Votic

  • Veps

  • Ingrian

  • Finnic

Finnic

в


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

I N G R I A


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

The brief history of Votic and Ingrian people

1069 – The first ever reference to Votians in official records (the Novgorod Chronicles).

1164-1189– The first ever reference to Ingrians in official records (a bull of Pope Alexander III to Uppsala Archibishop Stefan).

1270– Ingria became a part of the Novgorod region.

The Orthodox religion started to spread among the Ingrian population (however, the elements of paganism remained till XVI century).

The end of 15thcentury – Ingria became a part of the Russian State.

1617– According to the Treaty of Stolbovo Ingria became a part of Sweden.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

1700–1721– In the course of the Northern War Ingria was reunited with Russia. 

18th – 19th centuries – Increasing influence of Russian culture and language.

1917–1920 – The Civil war on the territory of Ingria. According to the Tartu peace treaty (1920) some western parts of Ingria became a territory of Estonia. Finnic population in Ingria was granted cultural autonomy.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

The 1930-ies– Contradictive period:

1. Support of minor nations

2. Period of repressions

Ingrian is taught in school (18 primary and 5 secondary schools) since 1932. The development of orthography and school grammar. The publication of many texts books on various subjects in Ingrian.

1930-1931– Collectivization.

1937 – Ingrian schools are closed. The teachers are subjected to repressions.

All remnants of the cultural autonomy are eliminated.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

1943– Germany and Finland signed the agreement about the deportation of Finnic population from Ingria to Finland.

The deportation started in the middle of 1943: Finnish, Ingrian and Votic people from Western Ingria were taken to concentration camp Klooga in Estonia. In several weeks they were sent to Finland.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

According to the official documents the deportation was voluntary.

The relocation of people of Ingria is conducted on the basis of voluntary reports of those willing to relocate.

The real situation: only inhabitants of a few villages managed to escape to the forest and avoided the deportation. The rest people were forced to relocate.

Many people died on their way to Finland.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

1944– After the capitulation of Finland most of Ingrian and Votic people wanted to return home. Instead, they were sent to various regions of Russia by the Soviet authorities and forbidden to go to their native villages.

1945-1955– the permission to return was granted only to those people, whose close relatives served in the Soviet Army.

Only after 1955 Finnic population was allowed to return to their villages. Most of their houses had been burnt or occupied by Russian families.

Russians treated the Finnic population in Ingria quite badly. Attempts to speak in a native language were often suppressed by Russians, who called the Finnic people in offensive names like "talapany" and "chuhna". At school children were prohibited to speak in their native language. The older generation tried not to demonstrate their difference from Russians; the younger generation did not learn their parents’ language, because it gave no perspectives.


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

From the 1990-iestill present – A new wave of interest to the native population of Ingria: TV reports, articles in newspapers, folklore bands, festivities.

2005 – Ingrian Community is organized.

Still, the older generation (i.e. the native speakers) often feels skeptical about the revival activities.


Population and native speakers

Population and native speakers


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Dialects

Votic

Ingrian

  • Soikkola

  • Krevin

  • Heva

  • Eastern

  • Lower Luga

  • Western (Central)

  • Oredezhi

  • Western (Lower Luga)

  • Kukkuzi


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Ingrian (Soikkola dialect)

[d]

[D]

[t]

[t~]

[t&t]

[tt]

Sounds:

/t/

( /t&t/ )

/tt/

Phonemes:

aiDa‘a fence:NOM’

aitta~ ‘a fence:PART’

tap&pa‘be enough:imp:2sg’

tappa‘kill:prs:3sg’


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Lower Luga Ingrian


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Phonetics – problem of borrowings (Votic)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Phonetics – problem of borrowings (Votic)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Phonetics – problem of borrowings (Votic)

VOTIC

RUSSIAN

b

b

- bb

bb

- bb

griba

grib

grib

‘mushroom’

gribba

‘mushroom:PART’


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Vowels (Soikkola Ingrian)

e% O_ o%


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Closed long vowels

e%

o%

O_

Proto-Finnic

ie

uo

UO

Finnish

e%

o%

U_

Votic

ie

uo

UO

Ingrian (Lower Luga)

e%

o%

O_

Ingrian (Lower Luga)

e+%

o+%

O+_

Ingrian (Soikkola)

J%

u%

U_

Ingrian (Soikkola)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Nominal paradigms (Soikkola Ingrian)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Verbal paradigm (“to do” in Soikkola Ingrian)

Stems


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Case marking of the object

V + O

hA_ kra%SkaiZtAmAnaija&n

He has painted this fence:GEN

miAoSSintAmAnleivA&n

I bought this bread:GEN

hA_ kra%Skaja~ tAmAnaija&n

He will paint this fence:GEN

hA_ ajoiSuenpoiZ

He has driven a wolf:GEN away

hA_ teGitAmAnkoinjoaikka

He built (=made) this house:GEN (already) long ago

?

Verbs with a strong Partitive government

Partitive

Negative constructions

Partitive

?

Incomplete action

Partitive

?

miAoSSinleipA~

I bought (some) bread:PART

hA_ eikra%ZanDtADAaitta~

He has not painted this fence:PART

hA_ ajoiminnua ~ miunpoiZ

He has driven me:PART~GEN away

hA_ kra%Skaja~ tADAaitta~

He is painting this fence:PART

hA_ suvvaiZmiunSiartjoaikka

He fell in love with my sister:PART (already) long ago

?

Uncountable objector object expressing indefinite quantity

Partitive

Personal object

Pronominal object

Partitive

Total case

Nominative / Genitive / Accusative (of pronouns)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Case of the total object

V + O

hA_nostilampa~n

He bought a sheep:GEN

hA_ kra%SkaiZaija&n

He has painted a fence:GEN

hA_ kra%SkaiZheijeD

He has painted them:ACC

te% tAmAkoDi

Build this house:NOM!

hA_ kra%SkaiZaija&D

He has painted fences:PL:NOM

hA_ teintAmAnkoin

He has built this house:GEN

hO_ ossettilammEz

They bought a sheep:NOM

Votic and some sub-dialects of Lower Luga Ingrian


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Language continuum

Votic – Ingrian – Ingrian Finnish

1. The features that exist in one language but are not present in other languages are very rare.

2. Most features are specific for a group of sub-dialects but not for the whole language.

Sub-dialect 1

Sub-dialect 2

Sub-dialect 3

Sub-dialect 4

Sub-dialect 5

Sub-dialect 6


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Language continuum

Ingrian and Votic: the “basic” roots are the same. The only exception: a verb “to speak”, which also distinguishes Votic and Ingrian from Ingrian Finnish.

IngrianlA_tA

Voticpajatta

Ingrian Finnishha%sta% (luatJ%, la%tJ%)


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

Language continuum


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

“Close the oven, all the firewood has already burnt”


Finnic languages and cultures in ingria

“He is from your village”

FEATURES

Ingrian (both dialects)

Ingrian (Soikkola)

Lower Luga Ingrian and Votic

Votic


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