Chapter 1. The Dynamics Of People and Organizations. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people – as individuals and as groups – act within organizations.
Of People and
Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people – as individuals and as groups – act within organizations.
Organizational Behavior is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base.
Goals of Organizational Behavior (Most Sciences share four goals)
- Describe (How people behave under a variety of conditions)
- Understand (Why people behave as they do.)
- Predict (Managers should have the capacity to predict employees actions on a certain day and take preventive actions) - Control ( To develop some human activity at work)
Managers are responsible for performance outcome, they are vitally interested in being able to make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort , and productivity. Managers need to be able to improve results through actions they and their employees take, and Organizational Behaviors can aid them in their pursuit of this goal. Organizational Behavior is a human tool for human benefit. Organization Behavior applies broadly to the behavior of people in all types of organizational, business, government, schools and Service organizations. Wherever organizations are , there is a need to ‘’Describe, Understand, Predict and (Control) better manage human behavior.
FORCESA collect set of Forces affects the nature of organization today can be classified as: - People - Structure - Technology - Environment
PeoplePeople make up the internal Social System of the Organization. That System consists of individuals and groups. There are formal and informal groups.Groups are dynamic. They form, change, and disband. People are the living, thinking, feeling beings who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. Remember that Organizations exist to serve people, rather than people existing to serve organizations. The Workforce of today organizations are richly diverse (Employees have a wide array of educational background, talents and perspectives ) Managers need to be tuned in to these diverse pattern and trends and be prepared to adapt to them. Management Leadership practices must change to match the new conditions.
StructureDefines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. Different Jobs are required to accomplish all of an organization’sactivities.Thus, there are managers, employees , accountants and assemblers etc., in an organization. People in the Organization have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively coordinated .TechnologyTechnology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The Technology used has a significant influence on working relationships.The great benefit of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work , but it also restricts people in various ways . It has cost as well as benefits.
EnvironmentAll organizations operate within an internal and an external environment.A single organization does not exist alone. It is part of a larger System that contains many other elements, such as government, the family, and other organizations.Numerous changes in the environment create demands on organizations.Individual organizations, such as a Factory, or a school, cannot escape being influenced by the external environment. It influences the attitudes of people , affects working conditions, and provides competition for resources and power.
• Positive Characteristics the OB Field One major strength of Organizational Behavior is its Interdisciplinary nature. It integrates the Behavioral Sciences with other Social Sciences that can contribute to the subject.
Another strength is its emerging base of Research Knowledge andConceptual Frameworks.
A third major strength of Organizational Behavioural is theincreasing Acceptance of Theory and Research by practising managers.
The Nature of People - Individual differences - Perception - A whole Person - Motivated Behavior - Desire for involvement - Value of the People
Individual DifferencesPeople have much in common but each person in the world is also individually different. This belief that each person is different from all other is typically called the ‘Law Of Individual Differences’
PerceptionPeople look at the world and see things differently. Even when they are presented with the same object, two people may view it in two different ways. Their view of their objective environment is filtered by perception, which is the unique way in which each person sees, organizes, and interprets things. Employees see their work worlds differently for a variety of reasons since they may differ in personalities, needs, demographic factors , and past experiences, or they may find themselves in different physical settings , time periods, or social surroundings. whatever the reason, they tend to act on the basis of their perceptions. Managers must learn to expect perceptual differences among their employees , accept people as emotional beings, and manage them in individual ways.
A Whole PersonOrganizations employ a Whole person not only a person’s skills or brain. A persons home life cannot be separated from his/her work life.
When Managers practices Organizational Behaviour, it is actually trying to develop a better employee, but it also wants to develop a better person in terms of growth and fulfilment.
Jobs shape people somewhat as they perform job, management needs to care about the job’s effect on the whole person.
If the whole person can be improved, then benefits will extend beyond the firm into larger society in which each employees lives.
Motivated BehaviorNormal behavior has certain causes. These may relate to a person’s needs or the consequences that result from acts.
In the case of needs , people are motivated not by what we think they ought to have but by what they themselves want. To an outside observer , a person’s need may be unrealistic, but they are still controlling.
Motivation is essential to the operation of organizations. No matter how much technology and equipment an organization has , these resources can not be put to the us until they are released and guided by people who have been motivated.
Desire for ImprovementMany employees today are actively seeking opportunities at work to become involved in relevant decisions, thereby contributing their talents and ideas to the organization’s success. Desire for improvement can be achieved through employee empowerment.
Value of the Person
People deserve to be treated differently from other factors of production(Lnad, Capital, technology) because they are of a higher order in the universe.
Because of this distinction , people want to be treated with caring, respect, and dignity; increasingly they demand such treatment from their employers. They refuse to accept the old idea that they are simply economic tools.
People want to be valued for their skills and abilities and to be provided with opportunities to develop themselves.
EthicsIn order to attract and retain valuable employees in an era in which good workers are constantly recruited away Ethical Treatment is necessary. To succeed organizations must treat employees in an ethical fashion.
Companies have established Codes of Ethics , publicized statements of ethical values, provided ethics training, reward employees for notable ethical behavior, publicized positive role models and a set of internal procedures to handle misconducts.
When the organization’s goal and actions are ethical, mutuality creates a
Triple Reward Systemin which Individual, Organizational and social objectives are all met. People find more satisfaction in work when there is cooperation and teamwork. They are learning growing and contributing. The organization is also more successful because it operates more effectively.
Society itself is the most beneficiary of the Triple Reward System. Because it has better products and services, more capable citizens and overall climate of cooperation and progress.
THE LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS
Overemphasis on an Organizational Behavior practice may produce negative results
as indicated by the Law Of Diminishing Returns.
Law Of Diminishing Returns states that at some point, increases of desirable
Practice produce declining returns, eventually zero returns, and then negative
returns as more increases are added.
The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a
desirable practice, such as recognition or participation
UNETHICAL MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE
The philosophy of Organizational Behavior is supportive and oriented toward human
Resources. It seeks to improve the human environment and help people grow toward
However, a significant concern about Organizational Behavior is that its knowledge
and techniques can be used to manipulate people unethically as well as help them
Develop their potential.
People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways.
The possibility of manipulation means that people in power in organizations must
maintain high ethical and moral integrity and not misuse their power.
As the general population learns more about Organizational Behavior, it will be more
difficult to manipulate people, but the possibility is always there. That is why the
society needs Ethical Leaders (Managers). Ethical Managers will not manipulate people.