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Now Prosperity: You will never know how much it cost us to preserve your freedom; I hope that you will make a good use of it. If you do not, I shall repent in heaven that I took half the pains to preserve it. -John Adams. Critical Period: 1781-1789. Impact of Revolution Republicanism

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Now prosperity

Now Prosperity:

You will never know how much it cost us to preserve your freedom; I hope that you will make a good use of it. If you do not, I shall repent in heaven that I took half the pains to preserve it.

-John Adams


Critical period 1781 1789

Critical Period: 1781-1789

Impact of Revolution

Republicanism

Representative Gov’t

Northwest Ordinance

Articles of Confederation

Federalists and anti-Federalists


The treaty of paris 1783

The Treaty of Paris: 1783

  • Cornwallis’s defeat at Yorktown heavy blow to Tories in Parliament

  • War was increasingly unpopular in England

    • Financially detrimental to British gov’t

  • Lord North & other Tories resigned

  • Whig leaders replaced Tories and sought ways to end war

  • Treaty of Paris: Provisions

    • Britain would recognize U.S. as independent nation

    • Mississippi River would be western boundary of U.S.

    • Americans would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada

    • Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims for property confiscation


Representative democracy

Representative Democracy

  • Also referred to as a republic

  • Concept: Republicanism

  • Government authority comes from the people who elect officials that represent their interests

  • Promoted the end of slavery, encouraged education and sacrifice for the public good

  • 13 colonies had a tradition of governing themselves…..

  • Elected their own representative law making bodies

  • Passed laws to keep peace within their communities.

  • Colonies had a tradition of representative democracy


State constitutions state gov ts

State Constitutions & State Gov’ts

  • Common aspects

    • Each state listed the basic rights and freedoms that belonged to all citizens

      • “unalienable rights”

      • i.e. jury trial and freedom of religion

    • Separation of powers

      • Legislative powers to an elected two-house legislature

      • Executive powers to an elected governor

      • Judicial powers to a system of courts

    • All white males with property could vote

      • Based on the assumption that property-owners had a larger stake in government than did the poor and property-less

      • Elected officials higher qualifications than the voters


Women s suffrage

Women’s Suffrage

  • Abigail Adams—1790’to early 1800’s

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony---1830’s to 1900’s

  • Women’s rights reformers

    • citizenship

    • right to vote

    • education

  • Supported the abolition of slavery

  • Republican motherhood

  • Despite their contributions, women’s rights did not progress and would remain 2nd class citizens


Voting suffrage early u s

Voting Suffrage: early U.S.


Now prosperity

Occupational Make-up of Several State Assemblies: 1780s


Abolishment of slavery

Abolishment of Slavery

  • New England states are the first to abolish slavery after the Revolution.

  • Middle States would abolish later….

    • In 1791, the Quakers formed first Anti-Slavery Society and Underground Railroad

  • Southern States would expand slavery after the invention of the cotton gin.

  • As country expands, North and South would compromise over the issue of slavery……


Now prosperity

  • Mason Dixon Line set the precedent over dividing the country over slavery.

  • Ohio River would be the dividing boundary between North and South.


Articles of confederation

Articles of Confederation

  • Background:

  • John Dickinson drafted first constitution for the United States as a nation (1776)

  • Congress wanted to protect the rights of individual states- did not want to grant overriding power to federal gov’t

  • Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1777- submitted to states for ratification

  • Ratification:

  • Ratification delayed by land disputes west of Alleghenies

  • Rhode Island & Maryland insisted new lands be placed under central gov’t authority

  • Virginia & New York gave up claims to lands in the west

  • When they did- Articles were ratified (1781)


Now prosperity

Articles Continued

  • Structure of Gov’t:

  • Central government w/ one body- a congress

  • Uni-cameral legislation: each state given one vote

  • 9 out of 13 votes needed to pass laws

  • Unanimous votes needed to amend laws

  • Powers:

  • Congress had power to:

  • a. wage war

  • b. make treaties

  • c. borrow money

  • 2. Powers NOT given to Congress:

  • a. power to regulate trade

  • b. power to tax (to finance any decision, Congress had to rely on states for money)

  • c. no executive power to enforce its laws


Now prosperity

Articles and Accomplishment

  • Northwest Ordinance: 1787

  • Encouraged settlers to form townships.

  • New states formed would be equal to original 13

  • Influx of settlers causes violence with Indians

  • Guaranteed settlers “unalienable rights”

  • Winning the war

  • a. can claim some credit for ultimate victory of Washington’s forces

  • 2. Land Ordinance of 1785:

  • a. Congress established policy for surveying and selling western lands

  • b. one section in each township set aside for education

  • 3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787:

  • a. large territory between Great Lakes & Ohio River

  • b. Ordinance (laws) for creating new states

  • c. Limited self-gov’t given to developing territories

  • i. slavery abolished in the region


Now prosperity

  • Grid system was created by Thomas Jefferson…

  • Structured and organized land policy

  • Allowed for a peaceful purchase of land.

  • Promoted an orderly expansion westward..

  • Confederation Congress convinced states who claimed land out west to cede their land to the US Govt.

  • US Govt. was to come up with a fair and reasonable land policy…..Unlike the Proclamation of 1763….

Land Ordinance: 1785


Now prosperity

The United States: 1787


Weaknesses of articles

Weaknesses of Articles

  • Financial:

    • Most war debts unpaid

    • States & Congress issued paper money (worthless)

    • Congress had no taxing power

    • States could only request state donations

  • Foreign:

    • Other nations had little respect for new nation

    • U.S. couldn’t defend itself or pay debts

    • Spain & Britain threatened U.S. interests in West (Confederation to weak to defend its interests)

  • Domestic:

    • Shay’s Rebellion

    • U.S. gov’t lacked the ability to quell rebellion


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U.S. owed France & Spain

Individual states owed money to citizens who loaned $ to states

U.S. Gov’t owed soldier’s for fighting in war; debts to Loyalists & British


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American Imports & Exports w/ Britain: 1783-1789

** What conclusions can we make about the economic plan inherent in the Article of Confederation?


Now prosperity

States held more power than the national gov’t: states couldn’t tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws

REASON IN SIMPLISTIC TERMS:

States feared authoritative power like that in England


Now prosperity

Disputed Territorial Claims between U.S. and Spain: 1783-1796


Why a constitution was needed

Why a Constitution was Needed

  • Articles weakened central authority

  • AOC hand-cuffed gov’t from acting decisively

  • AOC did not protect: Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness

  • States held too much power: if rebellion and revolt broke out in states, who’s authority is it to stop it?

    • Shay’s Rebellion forced Founding Fathers to realize AOC were too weak


Annapolis convention 1786

Annapolis Convention (1786)

  • George Washington hosted a conference at his home in Mt. Vernon, VA (1785)

  • Representatives agreed that the problems were serious enough to hold further discussions at a later meeting at Annapolis, MD, at which all the states might be represented

  • Only 5 states sent delegates

  • Alexander Hamilton and James Madison persuaded the others to call for a Constitutional Convention, to be held in Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation


Convention delegates 1787

Convention Delegates (1787)

  • 55 white male delegate went to Philly

  • Most college-educated, early 40s

  • Wealthier than the average citizen

  • Many were practicing lawyers and/or helped in drafting state constitutions

  • Elected a presiding officer: George Washington

  • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Governor Morris, John Dickinson were notable delegates (different ideas of central power- all sought to make stronger gov’t though)

  • Notable absences: Jefferson, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Paine, Sam Adams and John Hancock

  • Patrick Henry opposed any growth in Federal power; refused to take part


Federalists anti federalists

Federalists & anti-Federalists

  • You will read from Federalist No. Ten written by James Madison in which he defends the need for a large Republic to counter the influence of large majority factions.

    • Annotate and answer the questions found on the handout

    • Before reading Federalist #10, read from the excerpt below:

  • Read excerpt (pages 40-41) from AMSCO:

    • Break down the differences between Federalists and anti-Federalists

    • Be ready to discuss tomorrow…


Now prosperity

Federalists and anti-Federalists at end of War


Now prosperity

Ratification of Constitution


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