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Diffusion Coded Photography for Extended Depth of Field SIGGRAPH 2010. Oliver Cossairt, Changyin Zhou, Shree Nayar Columbia University. Supported by ONR and NSF. Conventional Camera (F/1.8). Conventional Camera (F/18). Camera Blur Model. Spatial domain. PSF. Focused Image.

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diffusion coded photography for extended depth of field siggraph 2010

Diffusion Coded Photography for Extended Depth of FieldSIGGRAPH 2010

Oliver Cossairt, Changyin Zhou, Shree NayarColumbia University

Supported by ONR and NSF

camera blur model
Camera Blur Model

Spatial domain

PSF

Focused Image

Captured Image

Image Noise

Frequency domain

Focused Image

MTF

Image Noise

Captured Image

(Modulated Transfer Function)

deblurring problems
Deblurring Problems

Low SNR

Focused image

Problem 2:

Sensor

Object

P

Q

Lens

Problem 1:

Low MTF values

Captured image

MTF

Variation with depth

extending depth of field edof previous work
Extending Depth of Field (EDOF): Previous Work

Focal Sweep Cameras

[Hausler ’72]

[Nagahara et al. ’08]

Wavefront Coding Cameras

[Dowski and Cathey ’95]

[Chi and George ’01]

[Garcia-Guerrero et al. ‘07]

Cubic Phase Plate

Sensor

Lens

Sensor

Lens

Focal Plane

Other Related Work

[Levin et al. ’07]

[Veeraraghavan et al. ’07]

[Levin et al. ’09]

slide7

near

far

focus

Conventional

Camera

depth

Focal

Sweep

Wavefront

Coding

Focal sweep vs. wavefront coding

Note: only a single PSF will be used to deblur the whole image.

slide8

Focal sweep vs. wavefront coding

Deblurring Error vs. Depth

Deblurring Error

noise

Depth

Focal Sweep

Wavefront Coding

optical diffusers

SEM image

Diffuser sheets

x

Scatter function

Light

ray

w

x

w

Diffuser

Sensor

Optical Diffusers

Diffuser

[http://www.luminitco.com]

diffuser kernels

Sensor

Diffuser Kernels

Without a diffuser:

Light Field

u

x

u

A/2

x

A

-A/2

Lens

diffuser kernels1

Sensor

Sensor

Diffuser Kernels

Without a diffuser:

Light Field

u

x

u

A/2

x

A

-A/2

Lens

With a diffuser:

u

x

u

A/2

x

A

-A/2

Lens

diffuser kernels2

Sensor

Sensor

Diffuser Kernels

Without a diffuser:

Light Field

u

x

u

A/2

x

A

-A/2

Lens

With a diffuser:

u

x

u

A/2

x

A

-A/2

Lens

diffusion kernels

A/2

-A/2

Diffusion Kernels

Without diffuser

Diffuser kernel

With diffuser

u

u

u

Light field

x

x

x

diffusion kernels1

A/2

project

project

project

-A/2

x

x

x

Diffusion Kernels

Without diffuser

Diffuser kernel

With diffuser

u

u

u

Light field

x

x

x

PSF

Camera PSF

Scatter function

Diffused PSF

radially symmetric diffuser
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser1
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser2
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser3
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser4
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser5
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser6
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

Without a diffuser:

PSF

Lens

Sensor

With a diffuser:

Lens

Sensor

radially symmetric diffuser7
Radially Symmetric Diffuser

-50px

50px

-50px

50px

-50px

50px

-50px

50px

Scatter

function

Camera

PSF

PSF:

PSF

(1D slice)

MTF

(1D slice)

Normalized frequency

Normalized frequency

Normalized frequency

Normalized frequency

depth

diffusion coding performance
Diffusion Coding Performance

Diffusion Coding (light field)

Diffusion Coding (wave optics)

Deblurring Error vs. Depth

Wavefront Coding

Focus Sweep

Deblurring Error

noise

Depth

Similar performance to focal sweep without moving parts

diffuser implementation
Diffuser Implementation

Diffuser scatter function

r(mm)

Diffuser height map

Fabricated diffuser

Diffuser surface profile

3

2

RPC Photonics

Thickness (um)

[www.rpcphotonics.com]

1

6

0

3

8

11

r(mm)

comparison with prior work
Comparison with Prior Work

x

Deblurring Error vs. Depth

Diffusion Coding

Garcia-Guerrero

Deblurring Error

Depth

Diffusion coding significantly outperforms prior work.

diffusion coding experiments

Measured PSFs

Without diffuser

With diffuser

depth

Diffusion Coding Experiments

Experimental Setup

Fabricated Diffuser

Cannon 50mm EF lens

Cannon 450D Sensor

stuffed toys
Stuffed Toys

Conventional Camera

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

stuffed toys1
Stuffed Toys

Conventional Camera

f-number = 18 , exposure time = 16ms

stuffed toys2
Stuffed Toys

Diffusion Coding Camera: Captured

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

stuffed toys3
Stuffed Toys

Diffusion Coding Camera: Deblurred

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

statues
Statues

Deblurred

Captured

f-number = 1.8; exposure time = 10ms

people and flowers
People and Flowers

Conventional Camera

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

people and flowers1
People and Flowers

Diffusion Coding Camera: Captured

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

people and flowers2
People and Flowers

Diffusion Coding Camera: Deblurred

f-number = 1.8, exposure time = 16ms

limitations

Loss of contrast

  • Occlusion errors
Limitations

Conventional Camera

Diffusion Coding

  • Loss of image texture
conclusions

Radially Symmetric Diffusers

Diffusion Coding Examples

Diffusion Coding Implementation

Conclusions

Diffusion Coding Theory

diffusion coded photography for extended depth of field siggraph 20101

Diffusion Coded Photography for Extended Depth of FieldSIGGRAPH 2010

Oliver Cossairt, Changyin Zhou, Shree NayarColumbia University

Supported by ONR and NSF

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