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Chapter 8. War and Strife. Security Issues. Global trends, see: Human security includes economic/social well-being, literacy, adequate health care, safe environment, etc. Security dilemma anarchic international system, absence of centralized authority

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Chapter 8

War and Strife

security issues
Security Issues
  • Global trends, see:
    • Human security includes economic/social well-being, literacy, adequate health care, safe environment, etc.
  • Security dilemma
    • anarchic international system, absence of centralized authority
    • one state’s becoming more secure diminishes another state’s security
    • permanent condition of tension, power conflicts
  • Key questions:
    • Is self-help only alternative?
    • Can states mitigate effects of security dilemma?
    • How can insecurity be managed short of war?
causes of war
Causes of War
  • Individual
    • aggressiveness, misperceptions, mass attributes, communication failure
  • State
    • Capitalist states, nondemocratic regimes, domestic politics, scapegoating (diversionary war), struggle between groups for economic resources, ethnonational challengers
  • System
    • Anarchy, lack of arbiter, cycles of war and peace, power transitions, aggressive international capitalist class
  • Most product of interaction of various factors at different levels of analysis
types of wars
Types of Wars
  • General war = conquer and occupy enemy territory, all available weapons, targeting military and civilian
    • massive loss of life, widespread destruction
    • many participants, multiple major powers
  • Civil war = conflict within state between factions to control government; may have international repercussions, often leading to intervention
    • Ethnonationalist movements -- to gain autonomy, secede
  • Limited war = fought for limited objectives, selected weapons and targets; object less than total subjugation
modes of warfare
Modes of Warfare
  • Conventional means
    • key developments (since 1980s)
      • precise targeting, miniaturization/lighter-weight weapons
      • Increase in international armaments market
  • Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) = nuclear, chemical, biological; lethal and indiscriminate
    • Controversy whether nuclear weapons/proliferation destabilizing
  • Asymmetric warfare = between parties of unequal strength; weaker party tries to neutralize opponent’s strength by exploiting weaknesses
    • Guerilla warfare = irregular militaries hide in civilian population, use hit and run to wear down enemy
    • Terrorism = use of violence by groups or states usually against noncombatants to intimidate, cause fear, or punish victims to achieve political goals
just war tradition
Just War Tradition
  • Just cause (jus ad bellum)
    • Self defense, defense of others, massive violation of human rights (humanitarian intervention) and declaration of intent by appropriate authority (Security Council)
    • Correct intentions (end abuses, establish just peace)
    • Exhausted all other alternatives (war as last resort)
  • Just conduct (jus in bello)
    • Differentiation between combatants and noncombatants
    • Violence proportionate to ends
    • Undue human suffering avoided
  • Humanitarian intervention (responsibility/imperative to protect) controversial
liberal approach to security
Liberal Approach to Security
  • International institutions coordinate actions to manage power
  • Collective security
    • Unlawful aggression met by united action
    • States join together against aggressor
  • Arms control and disarmament
    • Fewer weapons means greater security
    • Regulation of arms proliferation (arms control)
    • Reducing amount/type of arms (disarmament)
    • Reduces costs of security dilemma
realist approach to security
Realist Approach to Security
  • Reliance on force or threat of force to manage power
  • Balance of power
    • States make choices to increase capabilities and undermine capabilities of others, thereby maintaining balance of power (internal and external)
      • Alliances are tool to enhance power and check power potential of rival (example of external balancing)
  • Deterrence
      • War can be prevented by the threat of use of force