Chapter 8
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Chapter 8. War and Strife. Security Issues. Global trends, see: http://www.humansecurityreport.info/ Human security includes economic/social well-being, literacy, adequate health care, safe environment, etc. Security dilemma anarchic international system, absence of centralized authority

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

War and Strife


Security issues

Security Issues

  • Global trends, see: http://www.humansecurityreport.info/

    • Human security includes economic/social well-being, literacy, adequate health care, safe environment, etc.

  • Security dilemma

    • anarchic international system, absence of centralized authority

    • one state’s becoming more secure diminishes another state’s security

    • permanent condition of tension, power conflicts

  • Key questions:

    • Is self-help only alternative?

    • Can states mitigate effects of security dilemma?

    • How can insecurity be managed short of war?


Causes of war

Causes of War

  • Individual

    • aggressiveness, misperceptions, mass attributes, communication failure

  • State

    • Capitalist states, nondemocratic regimes, domestic politics, scapegoating (diversionary war), struggle between groups for economic resources, ethnonational challengers

  • System

    • Anarchy, lack of arbiter, cycles of war and peace, power transitions, aggressive international capitalist class

  • Most product of interaction of various factors at different levels of analysis


Types of wars

Types of Wars

  • General war = conquer and occupy enemy territory, all available weapons, targeting military and civilian

    • massive loss of life, widespread destruction

    • many participants, multiple major powers

  • Civil war = conflict within state between factions to control government; may have international repercussions, often leading to intervention

    • Ethnonationalist movements -- to gain autonomy, secede

  • Limited war = fought for limited objectives, selected weapons and targets; object less than total subjugation


Modes of warfare

Modes of Warfare

  • Conventional means

    • key developments (since 1980s)

      • precise targeting, miniaturization/lighter-weight weapons

      • Increase in international armaments market

  • Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) = nuclear, chemical, biological; lethal and indiscriminate

    • Controversy whether nuclear weapons/proliferation destabilizing

  • Asymmetric warfare = between parties of unequal strength; weaker party tries to neutralize opponent’s strength by exploiting weaknesses

    • Guerilla warfare = irregular militaries hide in civilian population, use hit and run to wear down enemy

    • Terrorism = use of violence by groups or states usually against noncombatants to intimidate, cause fear, or punish victims to achieve political goals


Just war tradition

Just War Tradition

  • Just cause (jus ad bellum)

    • Self defense, defense of others, massive violation of human rights (humanitarian intervention) and declaration of intent by appropriate authority (Security Council)

    • Correct intentions (end abuses, establish just peace)

    • Exhausted all other alternatives (war as last resort)

  • Just conduct (jus in bello)

    • Differentiation between combatants and noncombatants

    • Violence proportionate to ends

    • Undue human suffering avoided

  • Humanitarian intervention (responsibility/imperative to protect) controversial


Liberal approach to security

Liberal Approach to Security

  • International institutions coordinate actions to manage power

  • Collective security

    • Unlawful aggression met by united action

    • States join together against aggressor

  • Arms control and disarmament

    • Fewer weapons means greater security

    • Regulation of arms proliferation (arms control)

    • Reducing amount/type of arms (disarmament)

    • Reduces costs of security dilemma


Realist approach to security

Realist Approach to Security

  • Reliance on force or threat of force to manage power

  • Balance of power

    • States make choices to increase capabilities and undermine capabilities of others, thereby maintaining balance of power (internal and external)

      • Alliances are tool to enhance power and check power potential of rival (example of external balancing)

  • Deterrence

    • War can be prevented by the threat of use of force


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