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Kennedy and Johnson 1960’s. Chapter 20. John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35 th President/election of 1960. Defeats Richard Nixon – How? War-hero 1 st televised debate Kennedy looked good, held his own, well prepared. African-American vote Martin Luther King arrested

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Kennedy and Johnson 1960’s

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Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

Kennedy and Johnson1960’s

Chapter 20

John fitzgerald kennedy 35 th president election of 1960

John Fitzgerald Kennedy35th President/election of 1960

  • Defeats Richard Nixon – How?

    • War-hero

    • 1st televised debate

      • Kennedy looked good, held his own,

      • well prepared

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

  • African-American vote

    • Martin Luther King arrested

      • Eisenhower chose not to intervene

      • Nixon chose not to respond

      • JFK called brother, Robert, a lawyer, to see if there was anything he could do to get King out of jail

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

“Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.”

Camelot years

Camelot Years

  • JFK is young with a good-looking family

  • Used television to bolster image

  • Surrounds himself with the “best and brightest”

  • Appoints his brother Robert as his Attorney General – becomes his most trusted advisor

Military policy

Military Policy

  • Didn’t want the threat of nuclear weapons to always be the only option for defense

  • Strengthens and modernizes the military’s ability to fight a non-nuclear war

    • called Flexible Response

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s


  • Fidel Castro comes to power from 1956 – 1959

  • Declared himself Communist and welcomed any aid and assistance from the Soviet Union

  • U.S. puts economic sanctions on Cuba after Castro overthrows existing government

    • Sugar

Bay of pigs april 17 1961

Bay of PigsApril 17, 1961

  • CIA secretly trains Cuban exiles to trigger uprising to overthrow Castro

  • Set up by Eisenhower, Kennedy approved after taking office

  • NOTHING went according to plan

  • 5000 U.S. backed Cuban exiles enter “Bahia de Cochinas”

    • Air strike failed, CIA said it was successful

    • Cuban troops outnumbered Cuban exiles

      Embarrassment to Kennedy administration

Crises in berlin 1961

Crises in Berlin1961

  • June, Khrushchev wanted to close all access roads to West Berlin, Kennedy refused

  • Berlin Wall - Khrushchev constructs wall of concrete and barbed wire separating democratic West Berlin from communist East Berlin to stop the flow of refugees from fleeing

Cuban missile crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Summer of 1962, Soviet arms flow into Cuba

  • October 14, U.S. aerial photographs show nuclear missiles (ready for launching) in Cuba

  • October 22, Kennedy informs the people and sets up Naval blockade in Atlantic to prevent Soviet ships from sending more missiles

The hot line


  • In 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union, Kennedy and Khrushchev, established a “hot line” or direct line between the two countries to communicate at once in the event of another crisis.

  • (Contrary to popular belief, the hot line in the United States is in the Pentagon, not the White House.)

"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890."

Kennedy s new frontier domestic program

Kennedy's New Frontier Domestic Program

  • Federal funding for education

  • Medical care for the elderly

  • Government intervention to halt the recession with tax cuts.

  • End to racial discrimination.

    • President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity to end racial discrimination in hiring of govt employees.

March 1 1961 peace corps

March 1, 1961 Peace Corps

  • Alliance for Peace and Peace Corps to help Third World countries

  • sending young American volunteers to developing countries

New frontier impossible to complete

New Frontier impossible to complete

  • Due to conservative Congress.

  • Disappointed many civil rights activists = feared splitting Democratic Party.

  • New Frontier ideas led to President Johnson's "Great Society"

Space the final frontier

SPACE, the final frontier!

  • Kennedy promises to put the first man on the moon!

“This nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth”

Kennedy assassination

Kennedy Assassination

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

  • 22 November 1963

  • Dallas, Texas

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

  • Lee Harvey Oswald

    • Assassinates JFK

    • Former U.S. marine

    • Soviet defector

    • Communist

24 november 1963

24 November 1963

Oswald is murdered on live TV by Jack Ruby

Lyndon b johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson

  • Sworn in as 36th President aboard Air Force One

  • November 22, 1963

Warren commission

Warren Commission

  • Due to bizarre chain of events, many wondered if Oswald was part of a conspiracy

  • Investigation concluded Oswald acted alone

  • Learned the U.S. system of government is solid

  • “from the brutal loss of our leader we will derive not weakness but strength.”

  • --Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon b johnson1

Lyndon B. Johnson

  • Master politician

  • Chosen as vice-president because Kennedy needed his political connections

Domestic agenda

Domestic Agenda

  • Tax Reduction

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and sex (gender)

  • Economic Opportunity Act – EOA

    • Approved $4 billion for youth programs, anti poverty measures, small business loans, and job training

      • Job Corps Youth Training Program

      • Volunteers in Service to America – VISTA

      • Project Head Start

      • Community Action Programs

Know two

Election of 1964

Election of 1964

  • Democrats – Lyndon B. Johnson

  • Republicans – Barry Goldwater

  • Democrats take control of Congress

    • LBJ promises to keep troops out of Vietnam

Great society

Great Society

  • Johnson’s legislative program that would end poverty and racial injustice

  • 1964-65 Elementary and Secondary Education Act gave $1 billion in federal aid to public and parochial schools

  • Education is key to “unlock Great Society”

Medicaid – extended healthcare to welfare recipients

Medicare –insurance for 65 & older

Kennedy and johnson 1960 s

  • HUD – Housing and Urban Development

    • Low rent public housing

    • Headed by Robert Weaver, 1st African-American cabinet member

  • Immigration Act of 1965

    • Ended quota system

  • Environment

    • Water Quality Act of 1965

      • Required states to clean up rivers

    • Clean up attempts

  • Consumer Protection

    • Safety laws in labeling of consumer goods

    • Automobile safety

Supreme court warren court

Supreme Court – Warren Court

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren

  • Liberal reform decisions

    • Banned state-sanctioned prayer in public schools

    • State required loyalty oaths unconstitutional

    • Limited power of censoring books and films

    • Free speech in school

  • Reapportionment – way in which states redraw election districts

Court decisions

Court decisions

  • Baker v Carr – “one person, one vote”

  • Reynolds v Sims – extended “one person, one vote”

  • Mapp v Ohio – ruled evidence seized illegally could not be used

  • Gideon v Wainwright – provide free legal counsel to those that cannot afford it

  • Escobedo v Illinois – right to a lawyer during questioning

  • Miranda v Arizona – reading of rights before questioning

Impact of great society

Impact of Great Society

  • No president in post-war era extended the power and reach of the federal government

  • War on poverty initially successful

  • Tax cut spurred economy but Great Society contributed to budget deficit

  • By 1966 conservatives take a stand

    • Ronald Reagan

  • Vietnam overshadows goals of Great Society

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