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Polish groups at DESY. Jan Figiel The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences. Particle physics at DESY – experiments at HERA collider Polish institutions Manpower Contributions, responsabilities Finances Physics Summary.

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Polish groups at DESY

Jan Figiel

The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics

Polish Academy of Sciences

  • Particle physics at DESY – experiments at HERA collider

  • Polish institutions

  • Manpower

  • Contributions, responsabilities

  • Finances

  • Physics

  • Summary

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 1

Particle physics at DESY – experiments at HERA collider

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg – national laboratory with international participation,

running unique HERA e± p accelerator

(27.5 vs 920 GeV).

Polish groups participate in the following

high energy experiments at DESY:

  • H1 – collaboration of about 350 physicists from 44 institutions,

  • 15 countries

  • ZEUS – collaboration of about 350 physicists from 53 institutions,

  • 15 countries

…we investigate the fundamental particles and forces of nature…

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 2

Polish institutions

  • The H1 Collaboration:

  • The Henryk NiewodniczańskiInstitute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Cracow,

  • prof. K. Rybicki /prof. J. Turnau

  • The ZEUS Collaboration:

  • Warsaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics,

  • + Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw and University of Łódź,

  • prof. J. Ciborowski

  • Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, prof. A. Eskreys

  • AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Faculty of Physics

  • and Applied Computer Science, prof. D. Kisielewska

  • Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, prof. A. Kotański

Participation of Polish groups in the HERA project and H1/ZEUS experiments

is included in the Agreement between Polish and German Goverments on

the Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technology (1989).

DESY has signed the cooperation agreements with the Warsaw University, Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Science and Technology

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 3

Manpower of Polish groups (2004)

  • The H1 experiment:

  • 6 physicists (2 senior, 2 postdoc, 2 PhD students)(8 in 1998)

  • 2 engineers(4 in 1998)

  • 1.8 % of the H1 authorlist(2.3 % in 1998)

  • The ZEUS experiment

  • 32 physicists (12 senior, 11 postdoc, 9 PhD students)(32 in 1998)

  • 10 engineers(28 in 1998)

  • 9.0 % of the ZEUS authorlist(7.6 % in 1998)

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 4

Contributions, responsabilities 1999 -2004 (1)

The H1 experiment (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow)

Fast track trigger (FTT) – contribution to hardware (100 k PLN  30 k DM)

Topological trigger – responsability

Argon purity monitoring software

Online reconstruction software, monitoring

Shifts (including run-coordinator, HV expert) 25 – 40 days/year

Monte Carlo production coordination, running MC PC farm at DESY

The ZEUS experiment (Warsaw University, Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Univ. Łódź)

BACing calorimeter and VETO Wall – development of hardware and software

Calorimeter Hadron-Electron-Separator (HES) Data Quality Monitoring (DQM)

Shifts (leader, deputy) – about 80 days/year, Gas Safety Officer

DQM for diffractive group

Analysis software development (ORANGE)

Organisation of the ZEUS Collaboration Meeting in Warsaw, 2003

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 5

Contributions, responsabilities 1999 -2004 (2)

The ZEUS experiment(Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow)

Design and construction of the new luminosity monitor for HERA II run,

electronics, data aquisition system (DAQ) (~400 k DM)

Lumi software development, lumi display

Continuous measurement of the luminosity !

Responsability for photoproduction electron taggers 35m and 44m

Shifts (leader) – about 50 days/year

Monte Carlo production (FUNNEL) in Cracow – about 6 % of total (with Jagiell. Univ.)

Organisation of the ZEUS Collaboration Meeting in Cracow, 1999

Organisation of the workshop DIS02 in Cracow, 2002

Jagiellonian University

Coordination of the Slow Control System – permanent monitoring of the

detector parameters (high and low voltage, temperature, preassure etc)

Shifts – 16 days/year

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 6

Contributions, responsabilities 1999 -2004 (3)

The ZEUS experiment (AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow)

Maintenace of the luminosity monitor components

Responsability for the BACing calorimeter gas system

Development of the data aquisition system (DAQ) for luminosity monitor

Luminosity calculation

Running ZEUS reconstruction cluster at DESY (ZARAH)

Responsability for diffractive triggers

Shifts – about 80 days/year

Organisation of the ZEUS Collaboration Meeting in Cracow, 1999

Organisation of the workshop DIS02 in Cracow, 2002

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 7

The BAC Muon Trigger for ZEUS Experiment

BAC, overview:

ZEUS detector

The Idea of Muon Trigger

Muon triggered by BAC

J. Ciborowski, WU

The ZEUS Luminosity Monitor (1)

Measurement of the Bremsstrahlung photon rate in presence of strong synchrotron radiation.

Scintillator-Lead sandwich electromagnetic photon calorimeter with scintillator strips position detector preceded by 4X0 carbon filter with two Aerogel Cherenkov counters measuring energy loss in carbon

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 9

The ZEUS Luminosity Monitor (2)

Perfect agreement of simulated spectra

with measured ones – accurate calculation of cross section for each trigger

Checks: comparison of luminosities calculated with different energy triggers

Lumi display

Luminosity error  2 %

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 10

The ZEUS Luminosity Monitor (3)

Full potential of HERA … (CERN Courier, October 2004)



Linst  4.0 1031 cm-2 s-1, 0.7 pb-1/day

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 11

Finances (1)

  • Generous support from DESY:

  • Polish contribution to the operating expenses of HERA experiments

  • is covered by DESY (46 000 € in 2004)

  • Most of per-diem expenses at DESY for our scientific and technical staff

  • is covered by DESY - about 180 man-months in 2004

  • Participation of Polish physicists at international conferences has been often

  • supported by DESY

  • About 30 Polish students participated in DESY Summer Students Program

  • (1999 – 2004)

  • Support of DIS02 workshop in Cracow, 2002 – 10 000 €

  • The Foundation for Polish-German Collaboration (Stiftung für Deutsch-Polnische

  • Zusammenarbeit):

  • Hardware contribution to the Fast Track Trigger (FTT) for the H1 experiment (30k DM)

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 12

Finances (2)

  • National support:

  • Institution budget – mostly salaries + international collaboration ( < 10 %)

  • Grants of the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) – international

  • collaboration, hardware, gratifications

  • Ph.D. KBN grants – mobility, computers +… (8 in 1999 – 2004)


J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 13

Physics (1)

  • Analysis of hadronic final state in DIS ep (QCD verification):

  • search for instantons

  • measurement of forward jet andπ0 production

  • search for glueballs in K0 K0 channel

  • measurement of prompt photon production

  • QCD verification:

  • Exclusive production of J/ψ meson in DIS

  • Azimuthal asymmetries in hadronic final state in DIS

  • measurement of the proton diffractive structure function

  • measurement of the photon light cone wave function

  • Heavy flavours

  • Beyond the Standard Model:

  • contact interactions and leptoquarks

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 14

Physics (2)

  • QCD verification:

  • Diffractive processes:

  • Photoproduction of Vector Mesons at large momentum transfer

  • Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS)

  • measurement of the photon light cone wave function

  • Exclusive dijet production in DIS

  • Diffractive cross section at large Q2 in DIS

  • Charged current interactions with ‘rapidity gap’

  • Hadronic final states:

  • Correlations between final hadrons, multiplicity moments

  • Bose-Einstein correlations between various hadrons

  • Beyond the Standard Model:

  • Dilepton production

  • Important contribution from Polish theorists to HERA physics

In 1999 – 2004 Polish physicists presented H1 and ZEUS results

at various international conferences 44 times.

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 15

Forward π0 production in DIS


Testbed of QCD:

What is the dynamics of parton cascade

from the proton?

Next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation

and BFKL evolution are favoured.

H1 Collab., Eur. Phys.J. C 36 (2004) 441

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 16


  • e+p (95 pb-1) and e-p (16.7 pb-1) data analysed. Agreement between the two data samples.

  • Wδ fit in accordance with the hard underlying process.

  • Q-2n fit gives lower values comparing to exclusive VM production. DVCS is less suppressed with Q2 than VM.

  • Data compared to the GPD-based calculations. Good agreement found. Indication that t slope can be Q2-dependent.

ZEUS Coll. PLB 573 (2003) 46I. Grabowska-Bołd, AGH-UST

Diffraction in particle interactions

Vector meson photoproduction at HERA – test of QCD

  • Beam particles emerge intact or dissociated into low mass states

  • example: Vector Meson photoproduction with proton dissociation: ep→e *p→e VM Y

  • Final state particles separated by a large polar angle

  • (or pseudorapidity ln tan(θ/2)) : Large Rapidity Gap

  • Interaction mediated by t-channel exchange of object with vacuum

  • quantum numbers (no color exchange): the Pomeron



Diffraction in terms of quarks, gluons and QCD

  • dipol, QCD Pomeron exchange of 2 gluons or a gluon ladder

  • large scale (MVM, t ) small and interaction range perturbative QCD






  • varying momentum transfer t : transition between soft (confinement) and hard (perturbative)

  • regime of QCD

J. Figiel, D. Szuba

Vector meson photoproduction at HERA – test of QCD

  • proton dissociative production of J/ψ, dominates at large |t|

  • experimentally very clean process

  • high |t| domain little explored so far

Q2≈ 0, 80 < W < 240 GeV, |t| < 7 GeV2 so far







J. Figiel, D. Szuba

Vector meson photoproduction at HERA – test of QCD

pQCD based models:

Eur. Phys. J. C24, 345 (2002)

  • cross section

  • energy W dependence of the cross section

-- 2 gluon exchange: no rise

-- gluon ladder: week rise (DGLAP)

stronger rise (BFKL)

<W>=100 GeV

VM = ρ,φ, J/ψ

EPS, Aachen, July2003

<W>=200 GeV

<W>=100 GeV

BFKL and DGLAP calculations tuned to ZEUS and H1 data

at <W>=100 GeV and extrapolated to <W>=200 GeV


for t < 7 GeV2 BFKL too strong, DGLAP better?

What at t up to 20 GeV2 ? Just investigating !

DGLAP: Gotsman, Levin, Maor, Naftali

BFKL: Forshaw, Poludniowski, Enberg, Motyka

J. Figiel, D. Szuba

Exclusive J/ψ electroproduction (DIS)

0 < Q2 < 100 GeV2

30 < W < 220 GeV

-t < 1 GeV2

  W 0.7 ,   (Q2 + M2) -2.44

  • QCD models:

  • Rise of  with W related to increase of gluon density

  • in proton at low x

  • Large uncertainty in normalisation

  • Models describe the data qualitatively…

  • full NLO calculations necessary…

Zeus Coll., Nucl. Phys. B695 (2004) 3

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 21

Exclusive J/ψ electroproduction (DIS)

Regge Model revival…

 inWand t bins → Pomeron trajectory

d/dt  W4( (t) – 1) , IP (t) = IP (0) + IP’ t


  • IP (t) in DIS as in photoproduction

  • IP (t) inconsistent with ‘soft’ Pomeron

  • (Donnachie, Landshoff)

  • IP (0) in agreement with NLO BFKL

  • (Brodski et al.)

ZEUS Coll., Nucl. Phys. B695 (2004) 3

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 22


  • Fruitful partnership between Polish groups and DESY

  • DESY help is essential

  • Infrastructure at home institutes is reasonable (at least now)

  • All groups will continue till end of HERA II program (and beyond)

  • Three of them are interested in the future e+e- linear collider (TESLA/ILC?)

  • and already involved in preparation of the experiments in collaboration

  • with DESY

J. FigielRECFA2005, Warsaw, 25.02.2005 23

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