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Early Latin America. 1492 – 1788. “ 1491”. Spanish & Portuguese Cruelty. People. Ferdinand of Aragon Isabella of Castile Bartolome` de las Casas Hernan Cortez Mocteczuma II Francisco Pizarro Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Pedro de Valdivia. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

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Early Latin America

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Early Latin America

1492 – 1788


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“1491”


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Spanish & Portuguese Cruelty


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People

  • Ferdinand of Aragon

  • Isabella of Castile

  • Bartolome` de las Casas

  • Hernan Cortez

  • Mocteczuma II

  • Francisco Pizarro

  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado

  • Pedro de Valdivia

  • Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

  • Pedro Alvarez Cabral

  • Charles III

  • Jose de Galvez

  • Marquis of Pombal

  • TupacAmaru


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Groups & Concepts

  • Corregidores

  • Casa de la Contratacion

  • Consulado

  • Council of the Indies

  • Letrados

  • Viceroyalties

  • Paulistas

  • Hidalgos

  • Grandees

  • Encomienda

  • Mita

  • Potosi

  • Huancavelica

  • Galleons

  • Recopilacion

  • Audiencia

  • Haciendas


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Places & Concepts

  • Hispanola

  • Mexico City

  • New Spain

  • Captaincies

  • War of Spanish Succession

  • Columbian Exchange

  • Treaty of Tordesillas


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Viceroy

Pennisulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulatos

Indians

Slaves


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Reconquesta

  • 1492

    • Muslims ruled from 700s

  • Retake Iberia from the Muslims

  • Inquisition

    • Expel Jews

  • Atlantic reconnaissance


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Iberian Traditions

  • Patriarchal society

  • Nobles [landholders]

  • Professional bureaucracy

    • Based on legal system

  • No separation of church & state

  • Slavery


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Chronologyof Conquest

[3 Time Periods]

  • 1st Period:

    • 1492 – 1570

      • Est. administration & economy

  • 2nd Period:

    • 1570 – 1700

      • Colonial institutions & society

      • 1 M people under European control

  • 3rd Period:

  • 18th Century

    • Reform & reorganization

    • Set stage for dissatisfaction & revolution


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CaribbeanExperience

  • MODEL FOR COLONIZATION

  • Columbus

    • Formed encomiendas

    • Enslave “Indians”

      • Diseases destroy indigenous populations

        • Bartolome de las Casas tried to end abuse

  • Urban centers on European grid model

    • Build universities & cathedrals

  • Magistrates control government

    • Church joins process

      • Women & African slaves


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Paths of Conquest

  • IMPLEMENTED BY INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVES

  • Cortez in Mexico [1519] Aztec [Mexica]

    • Amerindian allies & devastating disease

  • Capture Tenochititlan & Moctezuma II

    • New Spain

  • Pizarro [1535] S. America [Inca]

    • Atahualpa

      • Weakened by civil war

    • Built capital at Lima


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    Paths of Conquest

    • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado

      • 1540

    • U.S. Southwest

  • Pedro de Valdivia

    • 1541

  • Central Chile [Santiago]

  • By 1570

    • 192 Spanish urban settlements in New Spain


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    The Conquerors

    • Regulated by agreement b/w exploration leaders & sovereign

      • Authority for promises of sharing spoils

    • Men of conquest [are] not soldiers

      • New nobility over Amerindian peasantry

      • Epidemic diseases end any resistance

      • Conquest ends by 1570


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    Conquest & Morality

    • Conquest, exploitation, & conversion justifiable?

    • Justification

      • Natives were not human;

        • thus subordinate

    • Defense

      • De las Casa defended natives

        • they are human

    • Outcome

      • De las Casas wins but much too late


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    Destruction & Transformation

    • Indigenous people suffered from conquest

      • Demographic catastrophe

        • Central Mexico

      • 25 M declined to less than 2 M

    • Spanish response

      • Concentrate survivors into towns and confiscate their land

      • Completely transformed their society


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    Exploitation

    • Spanish keep native institutions

      • Hold their nobles responsible

        • Labor debt & tax collecting

    • Enslavement [except in warfare] was forbidden by 16th C.

      • Encomiendas created by king

        • Land grants to conquerors

          • Used natives for labor & taxes


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    Encomienda

    • Land grants by crown

      • Modified because

      • Feared rise of new nobility

        • Disappeared by 1620s

    • State contracted native labor

      • Used in mines & state projects

    • Indians adapted Spanish culture to conform to their own


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    The Great Exchange

    • Columbian Exchange

      • Massive biological exchange

    • Changed both the new and old world

      • Exchanged crops & domestic animals & Diseases

    • Caused

      • Population increases in Old World

        • Counterintuitive = need for more colonization


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    Colonial Economic Systems

    • New Spain

      • 80% agriculture & ranching

      • Mining also an essential activity

    • Commercial enterprise

      • Exchange of manufactured goods for raw materials

      • Caused Latin America to become dependent


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    Silver Heart of Empire

    • Silver – major commodity

      • Mines in Mexico & Peru

        • Forced Native American labor

          • First as slaves then as paid labor

    • Govt. monopoly with individual investment

      • Owed the crown one fifth of production.

    • Potosi [Bolivia] largest mine.


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    Haciendas

    • New Spain

      • Agricultural & mining economy

    • Spanish rural estates emerged with decline of native populations

      • Haciendas become source of aristocratic wealth.


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    Industry & Commerce

    • Herding economy [sheep]

      • Led to women working in sweatshops [textiles]

    • Silver ruled commercial system

      • Caused major inflation in Europe.

    • Spain controlled trade and commerce

      • Manila Galleons

      • Galleons transport b/w China & New World

    • Employed convoy system to protect silver fleets from pirates


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    Political Systems

    • Church & State

      • Papal land grants / conversion

    • Treaty of Tordesillas [1494]

    • Viceroys: represented king / legislative / judicial / military power

      • Council of the Indies

    • Clergy: both secular & religious function

    • Inquisition controlled morality & orthodoxy.


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    Plantation Economy

    • Portuguese in Brazil

      • 1500

      • After French show interest Portuguese nobles move on the area

    • Granted captaincies

  • Jesuits arrive

  • Indian resistance broken b/c

    • Disease – military force – missionary action


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    Sugar & Slavery

    • Brazil – world leader in sugar

      • Very expensive

      • Very labor intensive / single crop

    • Hierarchy

      • Nobles & priests

      • Merchants & Govt. officials [bureaucrats]

        • Bureaucracy > lawyers


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    Labor Force

    • MISSIONARIES:

    • Ran ranches, mills and schools

      • Mixed bloods, poor whites, Indians & Africans who were > artisans, small farmers, herders or free workers

    • Slaves at the bottom [1/2 pop.]

      • 1st Native American

      • African


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    Brazil & Gold

    • Brazil lost its place as leader. . .sugar

    • Gold discovered [by Paulistas]

      • Minas Gerais [in Brazil]

        • Mines controlled by Portugal

    • Does not contribute to Portuguese economic development

    • Allowed them to import manufactured goods instead of making their own.

      • Very costly mistake. Big Stupid??


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    Hapsburg Rule

    • 1580 & 1640 – Portugal & Spanish share [Hapsburg] ruler

      • Netherlands in revolt

    • [War of Spanish Succession]

    • British, French, Dutch create sugar plantations in Caribbean

    • Spain looses sugar monopoly


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    Multiracial Societies

    • SOCIEDAD DE LAS CASTAS

      • European men & Native American women

      • Mestizo population

        • Similar process with African slaves

    • Social Hierarchy:

    • PENINSULARES- European born settlers

    • CREOLES - New World born [Europeans]

      • Would later lead independence movements

    • MESTIZOS: Mixed races: European – Native Am. – Africans [any combination]


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    Peninsulares

    Creoles

    Mestizos

    Slaves


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    18th C. Reforms

    • Spain & Portugal

      • 18th C. Intellectual movement

      • New demographic & economic trends

    • European population increases

      • Pressure valve = colonies

    • Long term important consequences detrimental

    • Amigos del pais - reformers


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    Shifting Balance of Power & Trade

    • Spain weakened

      • Poor rulers, foreign wars, internal civil & economic problems

    • France – Britain – Holland rise

    • Spain mercantile & political system I

      • War of Spanish Succession

        • Treaty of Utrecht [1713]

    • Bourbon rule in Spain


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    Pombal & Brazil

    • Marquis of Pombal

      • Portuguese reformer

        • 1755 1776

    • Suppressed opposition

      • Jesuits expelled 1759

    • Agricultural monopolies [stimulation]

    • Mixed marriages encouraged

    • Little change effected


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    Reforms to Revolts

    • Iberian colonies shared global growth

      • Economic boom >end of 18th C.

    • Reforms disrupt power patterns

    • Revolts:

      • Comunero Revolt [N. Granada]

      • Tupac Amaru revolt in Peru [Indians]

    • Illustrates local dissatisfaction with Imperial policies.


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    Latin America: Global Context

    • Portugal & Spain

      • Very large colonies

      • Global interaction

    • Recreated Iberia w/ local influences

      • Surviving Indian populations= multicultural & multiethnic society

      • Slavery [African]> role in society

    • Latin American transition is distinct from the west but related to it.


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    Enduring Questions

    • Trace patterns of economic & political development in New Spain.

    • Examine how those patterns impact Latin America throughout the time periods.


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