Wednesday april 24 2013
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Wednesday , April 24, 2013. Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence. Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material. HW: Worksheet. Mutations.

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Wednesday , April 24, 2013

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Wednesday april 24 2013

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

  • Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence.

  • Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material.

  • HW:Worksheet


Mutations

Mutations

A change in the genetic material of a cell.

Good

Bad

Neutral


2 types

2 Types

  • Germ cell mutations – Occurs in organisms germ cells.

  • Somatic mutations – Occurs in organisms body cells.

    Which ones can be passed to offspring?


Where can mutation occur

Where Can Mutation Occur?

  • Gene Mutations- Involve large segments of DNA or a single nucleotide within a codon.

  • Chromosome Mutations- Either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome.


2 types of gene mutations

2 Types of Gene Mutations

Point Mutation

  • Substitution

    Frameshift Mutation

  • Insertions

  • Deletions


Thecatsawthedog

THECATSAWTHEDOG

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

Sentence = Gene

Word = Codon

Letter = Nucleic base


Wednesday april 24 2013

  • THE BAT SAW THE DOG

    2. THE CAT SAW THE HOG

    3. THE CAT SAT THE DOG


Wednesday april 24 2013

THE ATS AWT HED OG


Wednesday april 24 2013

THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G


Frameshift mutations

Frameshift Mutations

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

THE ATS AWT HED OG

THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G


Frameshift mutations1

Frameshift Mutations

  • Caused by insertion or deletions of a nucleotide.

  • Alters the triplet grouping of nucleotides into codons.

    3. Shifts the reading frame so that all nucleotides downstream will be improperly grouped.


Sickle cell mutation

Sickle Cell Mutation

DNA mRNA Amino Acid

Normal C G

T → A Glutamic Acid

T A

Substitution C G

A → T Valine

T A


Check point

Check Point

1. Which type of mutation would have a greater effect on the sequence of amino acids in a protein, a base pair substitution or a frameshift mutation? Explain.

2. What is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded for by a section of mRNA with the sequence GUUCAGAACUGU.


Chromosome mutations

Chromosome Mutations

  • Are changes in chromosome structure.

  • There are four types of mutations:

  • Deletion- a piece breaks off and is lost.

  • Duplication - A piece is repeated.

  • Inversion - A piece breaks off and reattaches in the wrong order.

  • Translocation – A piece attaches to a different chromosome.


Karyotype

Karyotype


Structure of a chromosome

Structure of a chromosome


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