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Wednesday , April 24, 2013. Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence. Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material. HW: Worksheet. Mutations.

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Wednesday , April 24, 2013

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Wednesday, April 24, 2013

  • Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence.

  • Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material.

  • HW:Worksheet


Mutations

A change in the genetic material of a cell.

Good

Bad

Neutral


2 Types

  • Germ cell mutations – Occurs in organisms germ cells.

  • Somatic mutations – Occurs in organisms body cells.

    Which ones can be passed to offspring?


Where Can Mutation Occur?

  • Gene Mutations- Involve large segments of DNA or a single nucleotide within a codon.

  • Chromosome Mutations- Either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome.


2 Types of Gene Mutations

Point Mutation

  • Substitution

    Frameshift Mutation

  • Insertions

  • Deletions


THECATSAWTHEDOG

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

Sentence = Gene

Word = Codon

Letter = Nucleic base


  • THE BAT SAW THE DOG

    2. THE CAT SAW THE HOG

    3. THE CAT SAT THE DOG


THE ATS AWT HED OG


THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G


Frameshift Mutations

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

THE ATS AWT HED OG

THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G


Frameshift Mutations

  • Caused by insertion or deletions of a nucleotide.

  • Alters the triplet grouping of nucleotides into codons.

    3. Shifts the reading frame so that all nucleotides downstream will be improperly grouped.


Sickle Cell Mutation

DNA mRNA Amino Acid

Normal C G

T → A Glutamic Acid

T A

Substitution C G

A → T Valine

T A


Check Point

1. Which type of mutation would have a greater effect on the sequence of amino acids in a protein, a base pair substitution or a frameshift mutation? Explain.

2. What is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded for by a section of mRNA with the sequence GUUCAGAACUGU.


Chromosome Mutations

  • Are changes in chromosome structure.

  • There are four types of mutations:

  • Deletion- a piece breaks off and is lost.

  • Duplication - A piece is repeated.

  • Inversion - A piece breaks off and reattaches in the wrong order.

  • Translocation – A piece attaches to a different chromosome.


Karyotype


Structure of a chromosome


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