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Wednesday , April 24, 2013. Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence. Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material. HW: Worksheet. Mutations.

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Wednesday april 24 2013
Wednesday, April 24, 2013

  • Do Now: Sequence a mRNA strand from the DNA sequence TACCCGTTAGACGCAACCACT. Now, using the genetic code chart on page 211, determine the amino acid sequence.

  • Objective: Evaluate three ways point mutations can alter genetic material.

  • HW:Worksheet


Mutations
Mutations

A change in the genetic material of a cell.

Good

Bad

Neutral


2 types
2 Types

  • Germ cell mutations – Occurs in organisms germ cells.

  • Somatic mutations – Occurs in organisms body cells.

    Which ones can be passed to offspring?


Where can mutation occur
Where Can Mutation Occur?

  • Gene Mutations- Involve large segments of DNA or a single nucleotide within a codon.

  • Chromosome Mutations- Either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome.


2 types of gene mutations
2 Types of Gene Mutations

Point Mutation

  • Substitution

    Frameshift Mutation

  • Insertions

  • Deletions


Thecatsawthedog
THECATSAWTHEDOG

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

Sentence = Gene

Word = Codon

Letter = Nucleic base



THE ATS AWT HED OG



Frameshift mutations
Frameshift Mutations

THE CAT SAW THE DOG

THE ATS AWT HED OG

THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G


Frameshift mutations1
Frameshift Mutations

  • Caused by insertion or deletions of a nucleotide.

  • Alters the triplet grouping of nucleotides into codons.

    3. Shifts the reading frame so that all nucleotides downstream will be improperly grouped.


Sickle cell mutation
Sickle Cell Mutation

DNA mRNA Amino Acid

Normal C G

T → A Glutamic Acid

T A

Substitution C G

A → T Valine

T A


Check point
Check Point

1. Which type of mutation would have a greater effect on the sequence of amino acids in a protein, a base pair substitution or a frameshift mutation? Explain.

2. What is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded for by a section of mRNA with the sequence GUUCAGAACUGU.


Chromosome mutations
Chromosome Mutations

  • Are changes in chromosome structure.

  • There are four types of mutations:

  • Deletion- a piece breaks off and is lost.

  • Duplication - A piece is repeated.

  • Inversion - A piece breaks off and reattaches in the wrong order.

  • Translocation – A piece attaches to a different chromosome.




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