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Grid Computing (Special Topics in Computer Engineering). Veera Muangsin 23 January 200 4. Outline. High-Performance Computing Grid Computing Grid Applications Grid Architecture Grid Middleware Grid Services. High-Performance Computing. World’s Fastest Computers: The Top 5.

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outline
Outline
  • High-Performance Computing
  • Grid Computing
  • Grid Applications
  • Grid Architecture
  • Grid Middleware
  • Grid Services
slide4

World’s Fastest Computers: The Top 5

mega = 106 (ล้าน) giga = 109 (พันล้าน) , tera = 1012 (ล้านล้าน) , peta = 1015(พันล้านล้าน)

slide5

5,120

Specifications

Total number of processors

Peak performance / processor

8 Gflops

Total number of nodes

640

Peak performance / node

64 Gflops

Total peak performance

40 Tflops

16 GB

Total main memory

10 TB

Shared memory

#1 Japan’s Earth Simulator

earth simulator does climate modeling

Parallel decomposition

Grid points: 3840*1920*96

Spectral space

Grid space

FFT

J=1920

PN01

PN01

J=1920

PN02

PN02

PN03

PN03

. . .

Inversed

FFT

. . .

K=96

K=96

PN320

PN320

I=3840

Earth Simulator does climate modeling
slide8
Being constructed by IBM
  • To be completed in 2006
  • Expected performance: 1 PetaFLOPS, to be no.1 in the TOP500 list

(in 2003 the aggregated performance of TOP500 machines is 528 TFlops)

  • Applications: molecular dynamics, protein folding, drug-protein interaction (docking)
clusters
Clusters

The most common architecture in the TOP500

  • 7 in the top 10
  • 208 from 500
2 lanl s asci q
#2 LANL’s ASCI Q
  • 13.88 TFlops
  • 8192-node cluster HP AlphaServer 1.25 GHz
  • LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
  • Analyze and predict the performance, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons
3 virginia tech s system x
#3 Virginia Tech’s System X
  • 10.28 TFlops
  • 1,100-node cluster, Apple G5, Dual PowerPC970 2GHz, 4GB memory, 160GB disk (total 176 TB), Mac OS X (FreeBSD based UNIX)
  • $5.2 millions
system x s applications
System X’s Applications
  • Nanoscale Electonics
  • Quantum Chemistry
  • Computational Chemistry/Biochemistry
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Computational Acoustics
  • Ecomputational Electromagnetics
  • Wireless Systems Modeling
  • Large scale Network emulation
4 ncsa s tungsten
#4 NCSA’s Tungsten
  • 9.81 TFlops
  • 1,450-node cluster, dual-processor Dell PowerEdge 1750, Intel Xeon 3.06 GHz
  • NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications)
5 pnnl s mpp2
#5 PNNL’s MPP2
  • 8.63 TFlops
  • 980-node cluster, HP Longs Peak, dual Intel Itanium-2 1.5 GHz
  • PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
  • Application: Molecular Science
evaluate aids drugs at home
Evaluate AIDS drugs at home
  • 9,020 users (12 Jan 2004)
  • AutoDock: predict how drug candidates, might bind to a receptor of HIV’s protein
scientific applications
Scientific Applications
  • Always push computer technology to its limit
  • Grand Challenge applications
    • Those applications that cannot be completed with sufficient accuracy and timeliness to be of interest, due to limitations such as speed and memory in current computing systems
  • Next challenge: large scale collaborative problems
e science a new way to do science
E-Science: a new way to do science
  • Pre-electronic science
    • Theorize and/or experiment, in small teams
  • Post-electronic science
    • Construct and mine very large databases
    • Develop computer simulations & analyses
    • Access specialized devices remotely
    • Exchange information within distributed multidisciplinary teams
data intensive science 2000 2015
Data Intensive Science: 2000-2015
  • Scientific discovery increasingly driven by IT
    • Computationally intensive analyses
    • Massive data collections
    • Data distributed across networks of varying capability
    • Geographically distributed collaboration
  • Dominant factor: data growth
    • 2000 ~0.5 Petabyte
    • 2005 ~10 Petabytes
    • 2010 ~100 Petabytes
    • 2015 ~1000 Petabytes?
  • Storage density doubles every 12 months
  • Transforming entire disciplines in physical and biological sciences
network
Network
  • Network vs. computer performance
    • Computer speed doubles every 18 months
    • Network speed doubles every 9 months
    • Difference = order of magnitude per 5 years
  • 1986 to 2000
    • Computers: x 500
    • Networks: x 340,000
  • 2001 to 2010
    • Computers: x 60
    • Networks: x 4000
e science infrastructure

software

computers

sensor nets

instruments

colleagues

data archives

E-Science Infrastructure
online access to scientific instruments
Online Access to Scientific Instruments

Advanced Photon Source

wide-area

dissemination

desktop & VR clients with shared controls

real-time

collection

archival

storage

tomographic reconstruction

DOE X-ray grand challenge: ANL, USC/ISI, NIST, U.Chicago

data intensive physical sciences
Data Intensive Physical Sciences
  • High energy & nuclear physics
    • Including new experiments at CERN
  • Astronomy: Digital sky surveys
  • Time-dependent 3-D systems (simulation, data)
    • Earth Observation, climate modeling
    • Geophysics, earthquake modeling
    • Fluids, aerodynamic design
    • Pollutant dispersal scenarios
data intensive biology and medicine
Data Intensive Biology and Medicine
  • Medical data
    • X-Ray
    • Digitizing patient records
  • X-ray crystallography
  • Molecular genomics and related disciplines
    • Human Genome, other genome databases
    • Proteomics (protein structure, activities, …)
    • Protein interactions, drug delivery
  • 3-D Brain scans
what is grid
What is Grid?

Google Search (Jan 2004)

“grid computing”

>600,000 hits

“grid computing” AND hype

>20,000 hits

(hype = โฆษณาชวนเชื่อ)

from web to grid

1989: Tim Berners-Lee invented the web

    • so physicists around the world could share documents
  • 1999: Grids add to the web
    • computing power, data management, instruments
    • E-Science
From Web to Grid
  • Commerce is not far behind
the grid opportunity e science and e business
The Grid Opportunity:e-Science and e-Business
  • Physicists worldwide pool resources for peta-op analyses of petabytes of data
  • Engineers collaborate to design buildings, cars
  • An insurance company mines data from partner hospitals for fraud detection
  • An enterprise configures internal & external resources to support e-Business workload
slide32
Grid
  • “We will give you access to some of our computers and instruments if you give us access to some of yours.”
  • “Resource sharing & coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations”
slide33
Grid
  • Grid provides the infrastructure
    • to dynamically managed:
      • Compute resources
      • Data sources (static and live)
      • Scientific Instruments (Wind Tunnels, Telescopes, Microscopes, Simulators, etc.)
    • to build large scale collaborative problem solving environments that are:
      • cost effective
      • secure
life sciences

DATA ACQUISITION

ADVANCEDVISUALIZATION

PROCESSING,ANALYSIS

NETWORK

COMPUTATIONALRESOURCES

IMAGING

INSTRUMENTS

LARGE DATABASES

Life Sciences
biomedical applications
Data mining on genomic databases (exponential growth)

Indexing of medical databases (Tb/hospital/year)

Collaborative framework for large scale experiments

Parallel processing for

Databases analysis

Complex 3D modelling

Biomedical applications
digital radiology on the grid
Digital Radiology on the Grid
  • 28 petabytes/year for 2000 hospitals
  • must satisfy privacy laws

University of Pennsylvania

brain imaging
Brain Imaging
  • Biomedical Informatics Research Network [BIRN]

Reference set of brains provides essential data for developing therapies for neurological disorders (Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease).

  • Pre-BIRN:
    • One lab, small patient base
    • 4 TB collection
  • With TeraGrid
    • Tens of collaborating labs
    • Larger population sample
    • 400 TB data collection: more brains, higher resolution
    • Multiple-scale data integration, analysis
earth observations
Earth Observations
  • ESA missions:
    • about 100 Gbytes of data per day (ERS 1/2)
    • 500 Gbytes, for the next ENVISAT mission
particle physics
Particle Physics
  • Simulate and reconstruct complex physics phenomena millions of times
whole system simulations

wing models

  • lift capabilities
  • drag capabilities
  • responsiveness

stabilizer models

airframe models

  • deflection capabilities
  • responsiveness

crew capabilities

- accuracy

- perception

- stamina

- reaction times

- SOP’s

engine models

  • braking performance
  • steering capabilities
  • traction
  • dampening capabilities

human models

  • thrust performance
  • reverse thrust performance
  • responsiveness
  • fuel consumption

landing gear models

Whole-system Simulations

NASA Information Power Grid: coupling all sub-system simulations

national airspace simulation environment

stabilizer models

GRC

engine models

44,000 wing runs

50,000 engine runs

wing models

airframe models

66,000 stabilizer

runs

ARC

LaRC

Virtual

National Air Space

VNAS

22,000 commercial

US flights a day

22,000 airframe

impact runs

  • FAA ops data
  • weather data
  • airline schedule data
  • digital flight data
  • radar tracks
  • terrain data
  • surface data

simulation

drivers

48,000 human

crew runs

132,000 landing/

take-off gear runs

landing

gear

models

human models

National Airspace Simulation Environment

NASA Information Power Grid: aircraft, flight paths, airport operations and the environment

are combined to get a virtual national airspace

global in flight engine diagnostics

in-flight data

global network

eg SITA

ground station

airline

DS&S Engine Health Center

internet, e-mail, pager

data centre

maintenance centre

Global In-flight Engine Diagnostics

Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment: Universities of Leeds, Oxford, Sheffield &York

emergency response teams
Emergency Response Teams
  • Bring sensors, data, simulations and experts together
    • wildfire: predict movement of fire & direct fire-fighters
    • also earthquakes, peacekeeping forces, battlefields,…

National Earthquake Simulation Grid

Los Alamos National Laboratory: wildfire

selected major grid projects

g

g

g

g

g

g

Name

URL & Sponsors

Focus

Access Grid

www.mcs.anl.gov/FL/accessgrid; DOE, NSF

Create & deploy group collaboration systems using commodity technologies

BlueGrid

IBM

Grid testbed linking IBM laboratories

DISCOM

www.cs.sandia.gov/discomDOE Defense Programs

Create operational Grid providing access to resources at three U.S. DOE weapons laboratories

DOE Science Grid

sciencegrid.org

DOE Office of Science

Create operational Grid providing access to resources & applications at U.S. DOE science laboratories & partner universities

Earth System Grid (ESG)

earthsystemgrid.orgDOE Office of Science

Delivery and analysis of large climate model datasets for the climate research community

European Union (EU) DataGrid

eu-datagrid.org

European Union

Create & apply an operational grid for applications in high energy physics, environmental science, bioinformatics

Selected Major Grid Projects

New

New

selected major grid projects1

g

g

g

g

g

g

Name

URL/Sponsor

Focus

EuroGrid, Grid Interoperability (GRIP)

eurogrid.org

European Union

Create tech for remote access to supercomp resources & simulation codes; in GRIP, integrate with Globus Toolkit™

Fusion Collaboratory

fusiongrid.org

DOE Off. Science

Create a national computational collaboratory for fusion research

Globus Project™

globus.org

DARPA, DOE, NSF, NASA, Msoft

Research on Grid technologies; development and support of Globus Toolkit™; application and deployment

GridLab

gridlab.org

European Union

Grid technologies and applications

GridPP

gridpp.ac.uk

U.K. eScience

Create & apply an operational grid within the U.K. for particle physics research

Grid Research Integration Dev. & Support Center

grids-center.org

NSF

Integration, deployment, support of the NSF Middleware Infrastructure for research & education

Selected Major Grid Projects

New

New

New

New

New

selected major grid projects2

g

g

g

g

g

g

Name

URL/Sponsor

Focus

Grid Application Dev. Software

hipersoft.rice.edu/grads; NSF

Research into program development technologies for Grid applications

Grid Physics Network

griphyn.org

NSF

Technology R&D for data analysis in physics expts: ATLAS, CMS, LIGO, SDSS

Information Power Grid

ipg.nasa.gov

NASA

Create and apply a production Grid for aerosciences and other NASA missions

International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory

ivdgl.org

NSF

Create international Data Grid to enable large-scale experimentation on Grid technologies & applications

Network for Earthquake Eng. Simulation Grid

neesgrid.org

NSF

Create and apply a production Grid for earthquake engineering

Particle Physics Data Grid

ppdg.net

DOE Science

Create and apply production Grids for data analysis in high energy and nuclear physics experiments

Selected Major Grid Projects

New

New

selected major grid projects3

g

g

Name

URL/Sponsor

Focus

TeraGrid

teragrid.org

NSF

U.S. science infrastructure linking four major resource sites at 40 Gb/s

UK Grid Support Center

grid-support.ac.uk

U.K. eScience

Support center for Grid projects within the U.K.

Unicore

BMBFT

Technologies for remote access to supercomputers

Selected Major Grid Projects

New

New

Also many technology R&D projects: e.g., Condor, NetSolve, Ninf, NWS

See also www.gridforum.org

teragrid
TeraGrid
  • 13.6 trillion calculations per second
  • Over 600 trillion bytes of immediately accessible data
  • 40 gigabit per second network speed
european datagrid

Lund

Estec KNMI

RAL

Berlin

IPSL

Prague

Paris

Brno

CERN

Lyon

Santander

Milano

Grenoble

PD-LNL

Torino

Madrid

Marseille

BO-CNAF

Pisa

Lisboa

Barcelona

ESRIN

Roma

Valencia

Testbed Sites

(>40)

Catania

European DataGrid
uk e science grid

Edinburgh

Glasgow

DL

Newcastle

Belfast

Manchester

Cambridge

Oxford

Hinxton

RAL

Cardiff

London

Soton

UK e-Science Grid

e-Science Centers

asia pacific grid apgrid
Asia-Pacific Grid (APGrid)

Japan

Australia

USA

Canada

Korea

Thailand

Taiwan

Singapore

Malaysia

APAN members

grid goes to business
Grid goes to business
  • IBM, HP, Oracle, Sun, …
  • www.ibm.com/grid
  • www.hp.com/techservers/grid
  • www.oracle.com/technologies/grid
  • www.sun.com/grid
for more information
For More Information
  • Globus Project™
    • www.globus.org
  • Grid Forum
    • www.gridforum.org
  • Book (Morgan Kaufman)
    • www.mkp.com/grids
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