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第二章 计算机组成原理 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第二章 计算机组成原理. 第二章 学习目标与要求. 1.掌握计算机硬件的主要组成部分及其功能, 了解计算机的类型及它们的用途 2.了解微处理器的特点、功能、应用及大概的发展情况 3.描述 CPU 的结构与工作原理,理解指令的大体执行过程 4.熟悉 PC 机的物理组成,芯片组与其他部件的关系 5.了解 Cache 存储器和主存储器的功能与关系 6.理解 I/O 总线、 I/O 控制器、 I/O 接口及 I/O 设备的功能与相互关系 7.掌握常用输入设备的功能、结构与原理 8.掌握常用输出设备的功能、结构与原理 9.理解磁盘、光盘的类型、结构与原理.

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第二章 计算机组成原理

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3826520


3826520

1.

2.

3.CPU

4.PC

5.Cache

6.I/OI/OI/OI/O

7.

8.

9.


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2.1

2.2 CPU

2.3 PC

2.4

2.5

2.6


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2.1

  • :


2 1 1

2.1.1


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1

2

3

4


2 1 2

2.1.2


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    • CPU


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: CPU

I/O

5


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I/O

I/O


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CPU

CPU


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  • input

  • 01


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    • MIDI


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CPUCentral Processing Unit

  • PMP


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(CPU)

  • CPU248


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  • ()

    • ()

      • CPUCPU

      • CPU


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  • ()

    • CPUCPUCPU


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  • output

  • 01


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CPU


I o i o port

I/OI/O port

I/OI/OI/OUSB


2 1 3

2.1.3


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    • ()

    • 163264

    • Supercomputer

    • Mainframe

    • Minicomputer

    • Personal Computer


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1.Supercomputer

CPU


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2.Mainframe

CPU481632


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Minicomputer

IBMAS/400


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4.Personal ComputerPC

  • 1977Apple Macintosh

    (AppleMotorola

    1981IBM-PC

    (IBMIntel 8086


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5.


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  • PC


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  • Workstation)

    UNIXSGISUNHPIBM


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  • /

    /


2 1 4

2.1.4


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1.

  • ENIAC

    5000 /

    130 (

    30003800 ()

    Earth Simulator()350000 / NEC


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  • CPU

    1MIPS

    Million Instructions Per Second

    , P4100 MIPS

    2MFLOPS

    Million FLOating instructions Per Second

    3TFLOPS

    Trillion FLOating instructions Per Second )

    Earth Simulator 35.8 TFLOPS


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2.

2

Intel 4004: 4 (1971)

Intel 8008,8080:8

Intel 8086: 16

Intel 80386,80486, pentium32


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3.

BKBMBGBTB

1 B,Byte= 8,bit

1 KB = 1024 B = 210 B

1 MB = 1024 KB = 220 B

1 GB = 1024 MB = 230 B

1 TB = 1024 GB = 240 B

256 MB 40 GB


2 2 cpu

2.2 CPU

  • CPU

  • CPU


2 2 1 cpu

2.2.1 CPU


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CPU

  • (


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CPU


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ALUALU:)


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Cache

Cache

ROM


Pentium

Pentium

  • ALU1

  • CPUCPUcachecacheCPU

  • CPU


2 2 2

2.2.2


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CPU


Instruction set

instruction set

CPUCPU

/


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CPU


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mov

add


2 2 3

2.2.3


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I3

I5

I7

I1

I2

I4

I6

I8

I1

I3

I5

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I5

I1

I3

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I5

I1

I3

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I3

I5

I7

I1

I6

I8

I2

I4

Pentium

Superscalar


2 2 4 cpu

2.2.4 CPU


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CPU

CPU

  • CPU

    MIPSMillion Instructions Per Second

    MFLOPSMillion Floating instructions Per Second

    TFLOPSTrillion Floating instructions Per Second )


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CPU

  • CPU(MHz

    CPUCPUCPU

    CPU = * IPC()

    2GCPU1GCPU2

    Intel2GCPUAMD2GCPU

  • CPU(MHz

    CPUCPU

    = *


Cpu cache

CPUCache

  • Cache

    CacheCacheCPUCacheCacheCPU

  • CPU


2 3 pc

2.3 PC

  • PC

  • I/OI/O


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  • PC

    • CPU

      I/O

      I/O


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IDE

I/O

CPU

I/O

I/O

PCI

I/O

I/O

I/O

PC


2 3 1 bios

2.3.1 BIOS


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I/O

CPU

PCI

IDE

PC

PC


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()

  • CPU

  • CPU

  • 2(CPU)

  • (SIMMDIMM)

  • BIOS ROMCMOSI/O


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P4T


P4t i o

P4TI/O


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  • ()

  • ISAPCI

    ()


Chipset

Chipset


Chipset1

Chipset

  • Intel

    • Intel 875PIntel 865GIntel 850

      Intel 845P4

    • Intel 855Intel 852GM

    • Intel E7502Intel E7201


Chipset2

Chipset

,Intel 850

82850E

CPU,

AGP

82801BAI/O

82850EI/OUSB5.1BIOS ROM


Intel 850

Pentium 4

(3.24.2GB/s)

CPU(400533MHz)

82850E

MCH

RDRAM

(>1GB/s)

(4.2 GB/s)

AGP 4X

RDRAM

Ultra ATA/100

(x2)

IDE

(100MB/s)

6

82801BA

ICH2

I/O

(133 MB/s)

PCI()

USB(x4)

Flash BIOS

Intel 850


Bios bios rom

BIOSBIOS ROM

  • BIOSBasic Input/Output System

    /

    BIOSROMBIOS

  • BIOS4,

    • POST(Power On Self Test)

    • CMOS


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BIOS

DelCMOS

CMOS

  • PC

  • I/O

  • CMOS


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CMOS

CMOS


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CMOS

CMOS

http://www.8080.net/

http://www.jetway.com.cn/


2 3 2

2.3.2


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Cache

RAMROM


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Cache

BIOS

RAM

SRAM

DRAM

ROMMask ROM

ROMPROM

ROM

PROMEPROM

Flash ROM


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  • RAM(Random Access Memory)MOS()

    • DRAM

    • SRAM


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  • ROMRead Only Memory

    • Mask ROMROM

    • PROMProgrammable ROMEPROMErasable Programmable ROM

    • Flash ROMROM


Cache

L1 Cache

KBKB

Cache

L2 Cache128KB1MB

Cache

(SRAM)

CPU

Cache

DRAM

Cache

CacheSRAM

CPUCache


Cache1

Cache:

80386

Pentium 4

Cache


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DRAM

  • MB1MB220GB1GB230

    CPU

  • CPUCPU

    ns1ns = 10-9


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DRAM


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SDRAM

DDR SDRAM


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Rambus(Rdram)

  • SIMM

  • DIMM

  • Rambus RIMM


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10110111

8

00000000000000000000000000000001

Write


2 3 3 i o i o

2.3.3 I/OI/O


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I/O

  • I/OCPUI/OCPU

  • I/O

  • I/OI/O

  • I/O


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I/O

1.CPUI/O

I/O

2.I/O

I/O

3.

I/O

4.I/O()

5. I/OCPUI/O


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I/O

  • I/O

    • CPUI/O

    • I/OI/OI/O

    • DMADirect Memory Access

    • CPUI/OCPUI/O

  • I/O


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I/O

  • bus

  • CPUI/OPentiumCPUPCI/O

  • I/O

    I/OCPUI/O


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I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

    ()

    MB/s=/8MHz


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I/O


I o i o port1

I/OI/O port

//


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I/O

    • 1COM1, COM2

    • 81632LTP1


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I/O

    • USB

    • 1

    • , USB

    • VIDEO )


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USB

Universal Serial Bus

    • USB1.11.5 Mb/s12 Mb/s

    • USB2.0480Mb/s60MB/s

  • 4Plug & Play,PnP

  • USB USB127

  • USB5V100500 mA


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USB

USB

1

VCC

2

DATA

3

DATA

4

GND

USB

USB1.12.0

USB


Ieee 1394

IEEE-1394

1394i.LinkFireWire

400 MB/s663


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SCSI

small computer interface

SCSI32SCSISCSISCSISCSI


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2.4

:


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  • CTRL + Windows

    CTRL+C

    ALT + Windows

    ALT+F

  • 104PC

    108

  • PS/2

    USB


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  • pointing device,


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  • X-Y


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  • 312XY33LED


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    • /

  • Windows


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    • dpidot per inch

      300 400 dpi

    • 600mm/sec


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    • RS232 9 D

    • PS/2 6

    • USB


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.4.3


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USB

1.5A

1.5V

512

1

2


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    • USB


2 4 4

2.4.4


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CCD

CCD


3826520

    • dpi

      dpi 600 *1200 dpi1200 * 2400 dpi

    • 24 bit32 bit36 bit42 bit 48 bit

    • A4, A3


3826520

    • USB

    • 1394 ( Firewrie)

    • SCSI


2 4 5

2.4.5


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PC

CCD

A/D

  • CCDCMOS(A/D)


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    • CCD

      1600 1200 192000 200

    • CCD


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    • USB


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2.5

  • :


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    • Monitor


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  • CRT

  • LCD


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    • 151721

      43

    • ,

      *

      ,1024*1024 ,1024*768, 800*600, 640*480


3826520

  • 416


3826520


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    • VRAM

  • PCIVideo port


3826520

    • AGP

      AGP3264133 MHz 533 MB/s 1 GB/s3D

    • PCI

      PCI326433 MHz133 MB/s 32266 MB/s 64


Cpu ram

CPU

(VRAM)

RAM

AGP

PCI

CPURAM


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    • VGASVGA

    • 16MB 32MB 1GB

    • RGB 224


3826520


3826520


3826520


Laser printer

Laser Printer


Inkjet printer

Inkjet Printer

  • (


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  • (dpi )

    600 * 600 dpi

  • ppm

    12 ppm

  • USB


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2.6


2 6 1

2.6.1


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3


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floppy disk


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  • 3.5


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  • 3.5

    (0)

    80(00)

    18(1)

    512

    1.44MB

    2-8


3826520


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    • /

  • 34IDEIntegrated Drive Electronics


3826520

CPU


2 6 2

2.6.2


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  • 1-511


3826520

  • 512

    cylinder


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    • 0

    • 0

    • 1


3826520

  • IDEIntegrated Drive Electronics

    SCSISmall Computer System Interface


3826520

  • GB

  • Average Latency Time

  • Average Seek Time

  • Average Access Time

  • CacheKBMB

  • MB/s


3826520


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  • Flash8MB2GB10

    USB15


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  • 10GB60GBUSBIEE1394


2 6 3

2.6.3


3826520

    • CD

    • DVD


3826520

CD

  • CD

    • CDCompact Disk,

      • CD-ROM

      • CD-R

      • CD-RW

    • CD

      • CD-ROM

      • CD-R

      • CD-RW


3826520

CD

  • CD-ROM

    Compact Disc- Read Only Memory,

    • 650MB700MB


3826520

CD


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  • () 1 0

    1.6 m0.5 m

    : 0.83 m


3826520


3826520

  • CD-ROM 10


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CD-R

  • CD-R

    CD-Recordable

    • CD-R


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  • CD-ROM

  • CD-R10

  • CD-R

    100


3826520

  • CD-RW

    CD Rewritable

    • CD-RW CD-RW 1000


3826520

  • CD-ROM

  • Nero Burning ROM

    Adaptec DirectCD


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CD

  • CD-ROM

    • 150 KB/S

      44X4150KB/S

      4040X40150 KB/S

      40


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CD

  • CD-RW

    • 40X , 12X , 40X

  • CD

    SCSIIDEUSB


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DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD

      Digital Versatile Disk, 17GB

    • DVD

  • DVD


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DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD-ROMDVDCD-ROM

    • DVD-RDVD-Write-Once)DVDCD-R

    • DVD-RAM(DVD-Rewritable)CD-RW

    • DVD-VideoLDVCD

    • DVD-AudioCD


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DVD

  • DVD-ROM

    CD814,CD

    DVD0.74m0.4m


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DVD

  • DVD(7)

    • (~2.08x)

    • (~2.16x)

    • (~1.02x)

    • (~1.06x)

    • (~1.32x)

    • (~1.06x)

    • 635nm650nm, ,


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DVD

  • DVD


3826520

DVD-ROM

DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD

      DVDDVD

    • DVD-ROM

      PCDVD-ROMDVD


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DVD

  • DVDDVDDVD6


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DVD

DVD-VideoDVD


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