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第二章 计算机组成原理 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第二章 计算机组成原理. 第二章 学习目标与要求. 1.掌握计算机硬件的主要组成部分及其功能, 了解计算机的类型及它们的用途 2.了解微处理器的特点、功能、应用及大概的发展情况 3.描述 CPU 的结构与工作原理,理解指令的大体执行过程 4.熟悉 PC 机的物理组成,芯片组与其他部件的关系 5.了解 Cache 存储器和主存储器的功能与关系 6.理解 I/O 总线、 I/O 控制器、 I/O 接口及 I/O 设备的功能与相互关系 7.掌握常用输入设备的功能、结构与原理 8.掌握常用输出设备的功能、结构与原理 9.理解磁盘、光盘的类型、结构与原理.

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第二章 计算机组成原理

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1.

2.

3.CPU

4.PC

5.Cache

6.I/OI/OI/OI/O

7.

8.

9.


2.1

2.2 CPU

2.3 PC

2.4

2.5

2.6


2.1

  • :


2.1.1


1

2

3

4


2.1.2



    • CPU


: CPU

I/O

5


I/O

I/O


CPU

CPU


  • input

  • 01


    • MIDI


CPUCentral Processing Unit

  • PMP


(CPU)

  • CPU248


  • ()

    • ()

      • CPUCPU

      • CPU


  • ()

    • CPUCPUCPU


  • output

  • 01


CPU


I/OI/O port

I/OI/OI/OUSB


2.1.3


    • ()

    • 163264

    • Supercomputer

    • Mainframe

    • Minicomputer

    • Personal Computer


1.Supercomputer

CPU


2.Mainframe

CPU481632


Minicomputer

IBMAS/400


4.Personal ComputerPC

  • 1977Apple Macintosh

    (AppleMotorola

    1981IBM-PC

    (IBMIntel 8086


5.


  • PC


  • Workstation)

    UNIXSGISUNHPIBM


  • /

    /


2.1.4


1.

  • ENIAC

    5000 /

    130 (

    30003800 ()

    Earth Simulator()350000 / NEC


  • CPU

    1MIPS

    Million Instructions Per Second

    , P4100 MIPS

    2MFLOPS

    Million FLOating instructions Per Second

    3TFLOPS

    Trillion FLOating instructions Per Second )

    Earth Simulator 35.8 TFLOPS


2.

2

Intel 4004: 4 (1971)

Intel 8008,8080:8

Intel 8086: 16

Intel 80386,80486, pentium32


3.

BKBMBGBTB

1 B,Byte= 8,bit

1 KB = 1024 B = 210 B

1 MB = 1024 KB = 220 B

1 GB = 1024 MB = 230 B

1 TB = 1024 GB = 240 B

256 MB 40 GB


2.2 CPU

  • CPU

  • CPU


2.2.1 CPU


CPU

  • (


CPU


ALUALU:)


Cache

Cache

ROM


Pentium

  • ALU1

  • CPUCPUcachecacheCPU

  • CPU


2.2.2


CPU


instruction set

CPUCPU

/


CPU


mov

add


2.2.3




I3

I5

I7

I1

I2

I4

I6

I8

I1

I3

I5

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I5

I1

I3

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I5

I1

I3

I7

I2

I4

I6

I8

I3

I5

I7

I1

I6

I8

I2

I4

Pentium

Superscalar


2.2.4 CPU


CPU

CPU

  • CPU

    MIPSMillion Instructions Per Second

    MFLOPSMillion Floating instructions Per Second

    TFLOPSTrillion Floating instructions Per Second )


CPU

  • CPU(MHz

    CPUCPUCPU

    CPU = * IPC()

    2GCPU1GCPU2

    Intel2GCPUAMD2GCPU

  • CPU(MHz

    CPUCPU

    = *


CPUCache

  • Cache

    CacheCacheCPUCacheCacheCPU

  • CPU


2.3 PC

  • PC

  • I/OI/O


  • PC

    • CPU

      I/O

      I/O


IDE

I/O

CPU

I/O

I/O

PCI

I/O

I/O

I/O

PC


2.3.1 BIOS


I/O

CPU

PCI

IDE

PC

PC


()

  • CPU

  • CPU

  • 2(CPU)

  • (SIMMDIMM)

  • BIOS ROMCMOSI/O


P4T


P4TI/O


  • ()

  • ISAPCI

    ()


Chipset


Chipset

  • Intel

    • Intel 875PIntel 865GIntel 850

      Intel 845P4

    • Intel 855Intel 852GM

    • Intel E7502Intel E7201


Chipset

,Intel 850

82850E

CPU,

AGP

82801BAI/O

82850EI/OUSB5.1BIOS ROM


Pentium 4

(3.24.2GB/s)

CPU(400533MHz)

82850E

MCH

RDRAM

(>1GB/s)

(4.2 GB/s)

AGP 4X

RDRAM

Ultra ATA/100

(x2)

IDE

(100MB/s)

6

82801BA

ICH2

I/O

(133 MB/s)

PCI()

USB(x4)

Flash BIOS

Intel 850


BIOSBIOS ROM

  • BIOSBasic Input/Output System

    /

    BIOSROMBIOS

  • BIOS4,

    • POST(Power On Self Test)

    • CMOS


BIOS

DelCMOS

CMOS

  • PC

  • I/O

  • CMOS


CMOS

CMOS


CMOS

CMOS

http://www.8080.net/

http://www.jetway.com.cn/


2.3.2


Cache

RAMROM


Cache

BIOS

RAM

SRAM

DRAM

ROMMask ROM

ROMPROM

ROM

PROMEPROM

Flash ROM


  • RAM(Random Access Memory)MOS()

    • DRAM

    • SRAM


  • ROMRead Only Memory

    • Mask ROMROM

    • PROMProgrammable ROMEPROMErasable Programmable ROM

    • Flash ROMROM


L1 Cache

KBKB

Cache

L2 Cache128KB1MB

Cache

(SRAM)

CPU

Cache

DRAM

Cache

CacheSRAM

CPUCache


Cache:

80386

Pentium 4

Cache


DRAM

  • MB1MB220GB1GB230

    CPU

  • CPUCPU

    ns1ns = 10-9


DRAM


SDRAM

DDR SDRAM


Rambus(Rdram)

  • SIMM

  • DIMM

  • Rambus RIMM


10110111

8

00000000000000000000000000000001

Write


2.3.3 I/OI/O


I/O

  • I/OCPUI/OCPU

  • I/O

  • I/OI/O

  • I/O


I/O

1.CPUI/O

I/O

2.I/O

I/O

3.

I/O

4.I/O()

5. I/OCPUI/O


I/O

  • I/O

    • CPUI/O

    • I/OI/OI/O

    • DMADirect Memory Access

    • CPUI/OCPUI/O

  • I/O


I/O

  • bus

  • CPUI/OPentiumCPUPCI/O

  • I/O

    I/OCPUI/O


I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

  • I/O

    ()

    MB/s=/8MHz


I/O


I/OI/O port

//


I/O

    • 1COM1, COM2

    • 81632LTP1


I/O

    • USB

    • 1

    • , USB

    • VIDEO )


USB

Universal Serial Bus

    • USB1.11.5 Mb/s12 Mb/s

    • USB2.0480Mb/s60MB/s

  • 4Plug & Play,PnP

  • USB USB127

  • USB5V100500 mA


USB

USB

1

VCC

2

DATA

3

DATA

4

GND

USB

USB1.12.0

USB


IEEE-1394

1394i.LinkFireWire

400 MB/s663


SCSI

small computer interface

SCSI32SCSISCSISCSISCSI


2.4

:




  • CTRL + Windows

    CTRL+C

    ALT + Windows

    ALT+F

  • 104PC

    108

  • PS/2

    USB


  • pointing device,




  • X-Y



  • 312XY33LED


    • /

  • Windows


    • dpidot per inch

      300 400 dpi

    • 600mm/sec


    • RS232 9 D

    • PS/2 6

    • USB


.4.3



USB

1.5A

1.5V

512

1

2


    • USB


2.4.4




CCD

CCD


    • dpi

      dpi 600 *1200 dpi1200 * 2400 dpi

    • 24 bit32 bit36 bit42 bit 48 bit

    • A4, A3


    • USB

    • 1394 ( Firewrie)

    • SCSI


2.4.5


PC

CCD

A/D

  • CCDCMOS(A/D)


    • CCD

      1600 1200 192000 200

    • CCD


    • USB


2.5

  • :


    • Monitor


  • CRT

  • LCD


    • 151721

      43

    • ,

      *

      ,1024*1024 ,1024*768, 800*600, 640*480


  • 416



    • VRAM

  • PCIVideo port


    • AGP

      AGP3264133 MHz 533 MB/s 1 GB/s3D

    • PCI

      PCI326433 MHz133 MB/s 32266 MB/s 64


CPU

(VRAM)

RAM

AGP

PCI

CPURAM


    • VGASVGA

    • 16MB 32MB 1GB

    • RGB 224





Laser Printer


Inkjet Printer

  • (


  • (dpi )

    600 * 600 dpi

  • ppm

    12 ppm

  • USB


2.6


2.6.1


3


floppy disk


  • 3.5


  • 3.5

    (0)

    80(00)

    18(1)

    512

    1.44MB

    2-8



    • /

  • 34IDEIntegrated Drive Electronics


CPU


2.6.2




  • 1-511


  • 512

    cylinder


    • 0

    • 0

    • 1


  • IDEIntegrated Drive Electronics

    SCSISmall Computer System Interface


  • GB

  • Average Latency Time

  • Average Seek Time

  • Average Access Time

  • CacheKBMB

  • MB/s



  • Flash8MB2GB10

    USB15


  • 10GB60GBUSBIEE1394


2.6.3


    • CD

    • DVD


CD

  • CD

    • CDCompact Disk,

      • CD-ROM

      • CD-R

      • CD-RW

    • CD

      • CD-ROM

      • CD-R

      • CD-RW


CD

  • CD-ROM

    Compact Disc- Read Only Memory,

    • 650MB700MB


CD


  • () 1 0

    1.6 m0.5 m

    : 0.83 m



  • CD-ROM 10


CD-R

  • CD-R

    CD-Recordable

    • CD-R


  • CD-ROM

  • CD-R10

  • CD-R

    100


  • CD-RW

    CD Rewritable

    • CD-RW CD-RW 1000


  • CD-ROM

  • Nero Burning ROM

    Adaptec DirectCD


CD

  • CD-ROM

    • 150 KB/S

      44X4150KB/S

      4040X40150 KB/S

      40


CD

  • CD-RW

    • 40X , 12X , 40X

  • CD

    SCSIIDEUSB


DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD

      Digital Versatile Disk, 17GB

    • DVD

  • DVD


DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD-ROMDVDCD-ROM

    • DVD-RDVD-Write-Once)DVDCD-R

    • DVD-RAM(DVD-Rewritable)CD-RW

    • DVD-VideoLDVCD

    • DVD-AudioCD


DVD

  • DVD-ROM

    CD814,CD

    DVD0.74m0.4m


DVD

  • DVD(7)

    • (~2.08x)

    • (~2.16x)

    • (~1.02x)

    • (~1.06x)

    • (~1.32x)

    • (~1.06x)

    • 635nm650nm, ,


DVD

  • DVD


DVD-ROM

DVD

  • DVD

    • DVD

      DVDDVD

    • DVD-ROM

      PCDVD-ROMDVD


DVD

  • DVDDVDDVD6


DVD

DVD-VideoDVD


  • Login