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Looking Westward. pp. 348-259. Manifest Destiny. Writer John O’Sullivan coined the phrase in 1845 Destined by God & history to expand from coast to coast Fit w/ nationalism movement Racial motives for expansion “Racial purity” & superiority of the “American race”

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looking westward

Looking Westward

pp. 348-259

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Writer John O’Sullivan coined the phrase in 1845
  • Destined by God & history to expand from coast to coast
  • Fit w/ nationalism movement
  • Racial motives for expansion
    • “Racial purity” & superiority of the “American race”
  • Expansion opposed by some, including Clay
    • Would re-open debate of spreading slavery westward
texas
Texas
  • 1803—Claimed by U.S. in LA Purchase
  • 1819—Given to Spain as part of Adams-Onis Treaty
  • 1821—Becomes part of Mexico as Mexico gains its independence, American settlement is encouraged
  • 1835—30K Americans living in Texas
  • 1836—Americans in Texas declare their independence from Mexico/Texas gains independence
  • 1845—After much debate, the U.S. annexes Texas; Mexico breaks diplomatic ties w/ U.S.
    • JQA & AJ had both tried to purchase TX previously
oregon territory
Oregon Territory
  • Claimed by both Brits (George Vancouver) & the U.S. (Robert Gray)
  • 1818—Agreed to joint occupation
  • 1820s/1830s—Few white settlers, mostly fur traders
  • 1836—Marcus & Narcissa Whitman est. mission
  • 1843—Oregon Trail popularized; 5K settlers w/in next 2 yrs.
  • 1846—Despite “54° 40° or Fight,” Polk settles border at 49° N (same as today)
  • 1847—Cayuse Indians attack & kill Whitmans
election of 1844
Election of 1844

Polk ran on a pro-expansion platform

Clay avoided the issue of annexing Texas

trails
Trails
  • Oregon Trail
  • California Trail
  • Mormon Trail
  • Santa Fe Trail
  • *See map on p. 353
life on the trail
Life on the Trail
  • “Jumping off towns”
    • Independence, MO; St. Joseph, MO & Council Bluffs, IA
  • Mostly family units until Gold Rush; hired guides
  • 2,000 miles; 4-6 months
  • Various hardships:
    • Weather, disease (cholera & typhoid fever), rugged terrain
  • Native Americans often acted as guides & trade partners; occasional conflict, but often sensationalized
    • *More deaths from accidental gunshots than Native attacks
mexican war
Mexican War
  • Mexico refused to recognize Texas’ independence
  • Border dispute (Rio Grande or Neuces?); see map on p. 356
  • Polk sends Zachary Taylor to TX & tells navy to capture CA ports if Mexico declares war
  • Polk then offered to buy disputed areas (Slidel, $25 million for NM & CA)
  • War declared in May of 1846; overwhelmingly supported by Congress
  • War had many critics
    • Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln, Henry David Thoreau
    • See quotes on p. 357
mexican war1
Mexican War
  • Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe w/ no opposition (1846)
  • Kearny & Fremont captured California (1846)
    • Bear Flag Revolt
  • Winfield Scott captures Mexico City (1847)
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
    • Mexican Cession (see map on p. 358)
    • U.S. paid $15 million
    • Some wanted “All Mexico!”
wilmot proviso
Wilmot Proviso
  • What is the status of slavery in the newly acquired territory?
  • David Wilmot, from PA, anti-slavery Democrat
  • Proviso prohibited slavery in new territory
  • Passed House, but not Senate
  • Debate lingered; sectionalism intensified
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