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Looking Westward. pp. 348-259. Manifest Destiny. Writer John O’Sullivan coined the phrase in 1845 Destined by God & history to expand from coast to coast Fit w/ nationalism movement Racial motives for expansion “Racial purity” & superiority of the “American race”

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Looking westward

Looking Westward

pp. 348-259


Manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny

  • Writer John O’Sullivan coined the phrase in 1845

  • Destined by God & history to expand from coast to coast

  • Fit w/ nationalism movement

  • Racial motives for expansion

    • “Racial purity” & superiority of the “American race”

  • Expansion opposed by some, including Clay

    • Would re-open debate of spreading slavery westward


Texas
Texas

  • 1803—Claimed by U.S. in LA Purchase

  • 1819—Given to Spain as part of Adams-Onis Treaty

  • 1821—Becomes part of Mexico as Mexico gains its independence, American settlement is encouraged

  • 1835—30K Americans living in Texas

  • 1836—Americans in Texas declare their independence from Mexico/Texas gains independence

  • 1845—After much debate, the U.S. annexes Texas; Mexico breaks diplomatic ties w/ U.S.

    • JQA & AJ had both tried to purchase TX previously


Oregon territory
Oregon Territory

  • Claimed by both Brits (George Vancouver) & the U.S. (Robert Gray)

  • 1818—Agreed to joint occupation

  • 1820s/1830s—Few white settlers, mostly fur traders

  • 1836—Marcus & Narcissa Whitman est. mission

  • 1843—Oregon Trail popularized; 5K settlers w/in next 2 yrs.

  • 1846—Despite “54° 40° or Fight,” Polk settles border at 49° N (same as today)

  • 1847—Cayuse Indians attack & kill Whitmans


Election of 1844
Election of 1844

Polk ran on a pro-expansion platform

Clay avoided the issue of annexing Texas


Trails
Trails

  • Oregon Trail

  • California Trail

  • Mormon Trail

  • Santa Fe Trail

  • *See map on p. 353


Life on the trail
Life on the Trail

  • “Jumping off towns”

    • Independence, MO; St. Joseph, MO & Council Bluffs, IA

  • Mostly family units until Gold Rush; hired guides

  • 2,000 miles; 4-6 months

  • Various hardships:

    • Weather, disease (cholera & typhoid fever), rugged terrain

  • Native Americans often acted as guides & trade partners; occasional conflict, but often sensationalized

    • *More deaths from accidental gunshots than Native attacks


Mexican war
Mexican War

  • Mexico refused to recognize Texas’ independence

  • Border dispute (Rio Grande or Neuces?); see map on p. 356

  • Polk sends Zachary Taylor to TX & tells navy to capture CA ports if Mexico declares war

  • Polk then offered to buy disputed areas (Slidel, $25 million for NM & CA)

  • War declared in May of 1846; overwhelmingly supported by Congress

  • War had many critics

    • Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln, Henry David Thoreau

    • See quotes on p. 357


Mexican war1
Mexican War

  • Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe w/ no opposition (1846)

  • Kearny & Fremont captured California (1846)

    • Bear Flag Revolt

  • Winfield Scott captures Mexico City (1847)

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

    • Mexican Cession (see map on p. 358)

    • U.S. paid $15 million

    • Some wanted “All Mexico!”


Wilmot proviso
Wilmot Proviso

  • What is the status of slavery in the newly acquired territory?

  • David Wilmot, from PA, anti-slavery Democrat

  • Proviso prohibited slavery in new territory

  • Passed House, but not Senate

  • Debate lingered; sectionalism intensified


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