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II International Meeting of the RITMO Network MOBILITY PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS Can Botino, Ibiza, 15, 16 March 2007. HERSONISSOS MUNICIPALITY. GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION AND PARKING

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Hersonissos municipality

II International Meeting of the RITMO Network

MOBILITY PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION

IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS

Can Botino, Ibiza, 15, 16 March 2007

HERSONISSOS MUNICIPALITY

GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION AND PARKING

IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS

Dr. John Frantzeskakis

Transportation Engineer, Professor Emeritus National Technical University of Athens

DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS S.A.


Hersonissos municipality

  • INTRODUCTION

    1.1Cities Developed Before the Expansion of the Car Ownership and Use Cannot Cope With the Resulting Fast Traffic Growth

    1.2The Situation is Worst in Tourist Destinations where, During Peak Periods, Population and Passenger Vehicles (Cars, Motorcycles) Multiply. Similar Phenomena Appear at Cities Hosting Major International Events e.g. Olympic or Other International Games, Exhibitions etc.

    1.3Impossible and Expensive to Properly Cope with Above Situations by only Expanding or Improving Transportation Infrastructure

    1.4Proper “Demand Management Measures” should be Applied to Reduce the Use of Cars Especially at Peak Periods

    1.5Major Strategies for Less Cars in Tourist Destinations are Examined and Some Examples are Given from Greek Cities

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/072


Hersonissos municipality

2.MAJOR STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS

2.1Impossible to Control Car Ownershipup to the Saturation Level of About 600 cars/1000 inh. as Income Increases and Costs and Methods of Payment of Cars Become More Favorable

2.2However, Many Effective Methods Exist to Reduce the Use of Cars:

a.Proper Town Planning in:

- Expanding Existing Cities

- Building New Cities. The Case of Islamabad [6.1]

b.Mass Transportation: Public Transport

c.Shared Taxis & High Occupancy Vehicles (H.O.V.)

d.Other Sustainable Mobility Modes: Walking – Cycling

e.Tolls. The London Example

f.Banning of Cars at Certain Areas During Peak Periods

- Successful Example: Athens 2004 Olympics

- Unsuccessful Example: Even and Odd Numbers in Central Athens

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/073


Hersonissos municipality

3.SEASONAL PEAKS IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS

3.1Number of Tourists Many Times That of Residents

3.2Usually Short Tourist Periods of a Few Months

3.3Differing Characteristics

  • Peak Hours

  • Trip Purposes

  • Modes of Transport

  • Origin and Destinations

  • Need Better Level of Service etc.

3.4Number and Quality of Tourists are Affected by Traffic and Environmental Problems

3.5Combined Land-Use – Transportation Planning Should Consider Location, Size and Traffic Impact of Tourist Facilities

3.6A Special Transportation Study is Needed to Properly Serve the Movements of Tourists in Each Tourist Destination

3.7Special Methods and Techniques should be Developed to:

a. Properly Serve Tourist Movements

b. Reduce the Effect of Tourist Traffic to Normal City Traffic

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/074


Hersonissos municipality

4.EXAMPLES FROM GREEK CITIES

4.1Pedestrianization of Selected Critical Areas

4.1.1City of Larissa, Pedestrianization of City Centre, Effect on Accidents

  • Comprehensive Combined Land-Use – Transportation Planning of the City and of the Neighboring Tourist Destinations

  • Definition of a Pedestrian Network in the City Centre and the Adjacent Archeological Site. Design and Implementation Program

  • Construction of Open-Air and Underground Parking

  • Reactions for the Construction of the First Pedestrian Streets. Full Acceptance When Completed

  • Reduction of the Percent of Pedestrian Accidents in the Whole City by 33% (Fig. 1)

  • The E.U. Program DUMAS (Developing Urban Management And Safety) [6.2]

    • Large Reductions Observed in All Greek Cities Where Extensive Pedestrianizations Took Place (Fig. 1)

    • Increase in the Percent of Motorcycle Accidents, While the Percent of Passenger Car Accidents Remains the Same (Fig. 2)

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/075


Hersonissos municipality

FIGURE 1. Percent of Road Accidents With the Participation of Pedestrians. 22 Medium Size Greek Cities. Comparison Periods 1985-87 and 1993-95

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/076


Figure 2 larissa percent of road accidents with involvement of cars and motorcycles 1986 98

FIGURE 2. Larissa. Percent of Road Accidents With Involvement of Cars and Motorcycles, 1986-98

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/077


Hersonissos municipality

4.1.2ATHENS. Unification of Archeological Sites

  • Extensive Pedestrianizations in the Broader Acropolis Area

  • Stations, Stops and Parking for Tourist Buses

  • Metro Stations and Bus-Stops Near the Area (Walking Distance)

  • Planned Tramway Line In and Around the Area not yet Constructed

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/078


Hersonissos municipality

4.2City of Rhodes. Rehabilitation of the Acoustic Environment

  • Significant Environmental Noise Reduction of 4.7dB(A) between 1990 (74.1dB(A)) and 1999 (69.4dB(A)) at a City Level, Despite the Considerable Increase in the Number of Tourists [6.3]

  • The Reduction is Primarily due to the Significant Improvement of Traffic Conditions as well as to Motorcycle Quality

  • The Following Conclusions Arise From the Correlation of the Results of a Social Survey Carried in September 1998 With Quantitative Noise Parameters:

    • Driving is not a Priority in the Tourist Preferences

    • Scrolling and, in general, Pedestrian Traffic and Contact With the City in One of the Primary Recreational Activities

    • Negative Reactions on the Acoustic Environment are Less Focused on Entertainment Activities and More on Traffic Noise

  • The Following Specific Proposals Were Made to Control Traffic Noise:

    • On-Road Control of Motorcycle Noise

    • Anti-noise Asphalt Pavements

    • Extensive Pedestrianizations

    • Encouraging Public Transport, Walking and Use of Bicycle

    • Traffic Management Measures (Improving Traffic Flows, Speed Reduction, Parking Management, Traffic Restrictions etc.)

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/079


Hersonissos municipality

4.3City of Athens – 2004 Olympic Games. Parking and Traffic Restrictions at Major Venues (Fig. 3) [6.4]

  • Parking Permitted Only for Residents in “Parking Control Zones” (ΖΕΣ) in a Broad Area Around Major Athletic Venues. Thus, All Spectators, who are not Allowed to Use the Parking Areas Within the Venues Arrive Only by Public Transport and Special Buses

  • Through Traffic is Prohibited at Smaller “Entrance & Traffic Control Zones” (ΖΕΕΚ) in the Vicinity of the Venue Where the Above Buses and Other Special Vehicles for the Games (Athletes, Olympic Family, VIP’s etc.) Enter to Access the Venue

  • The Total Olympic Traffic Volumes (Olympic Family and Spectators Buses) on the Critical Areas of Major Venues Were Considerably Decreased to the Level of the Capacity of the “Olympic Lanes” Exclusively Devoted to Olympic Movements (Fig. 4)

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/0710


Figure 3 athens olympic sports complex access plan and control zones

FIGURE 3. Athens Olympic Sports Complex. Access Plan and Control Zones

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/0711


Figure 4 predicted traffic volumes of olympic family vehicles and spectators buses

FIGURE 4. Predicted Traffic Volumes of Olympic Family Vehicles and Spectators Buses

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/0712


Hersonissos municipality

5.CONCLUSIONS

5.1A Special Comprehensive Land-Use/Transportation Study is Needed In Order to Prepare a General Plan and Program to Face the Increasing Special Transportation Needs in Each Tourist Destination

5.2Strong Political Will is Necessary to Implement Certain Actions (Extensive Pedestrianizations, Reducing Car Use, Banning of Cars, etc.)

5.3Known Traffic & Demand Management Techniques to Reduce Car Use and Avoid Traffic Congestion are Sufficient if Properly Adjusted to the Special Requirements in Each Tourist Destination (Pedestrianizations, Wide Sidewalks -Clear of Obstacles-, Bicycle Network, Public Transport Improvement & Favoring, Parking Policy, Controlled On-Street Parking, Banning of Cars, Tolls, H.O.V., etc.)

5.4In Greek and Some Other Mediterranean Tourist Destinations, There Are Large Margins for Improvement Through Proper Application of Above Known Low-Cost Techniques. Expensive Extensions of the Existing Infrastructure to Face Only the High Demand in Tourist Season Should Be Avoided or Postponed Until Low-Cost Techniques are Properly Implemented

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/0713


Hersonissos municipality

6.REFERENCES

[1]J.M. Frantzeskakis, N.A. Butt “Planning Urban Networks: The Islamabad Example” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 51, No 1, Winter 1997, ENO Transportation Foundation, Inc., Landsdowne, Virginia

[2]J.M. Frantzeskakis, M. Pitsiava-Latinopoulou “Traffic Management and Safety in Two Greek Cities. The DUMAS Project”. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference “Traffic Safety in Two Continents” Malmo, 20-22 September 1999

[3]J.M. Frantzeskakis, J. Simantonis, C. Vogiatzis “Rehabilitation of the Acoustic Environment of the City of Rhodes”. Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering. (inter noise 2000) Nice, France 27-31 August 2000, Volume 4, p. 2146-2152

[4]J.M. Frantzeskakis, M.J. Frantzeskakis “Athens 2004 Olympic Games: Transportation Planning, Simulation and Traffic Management” ITE. Institute of Transportation (USA) Journal, October 2006

J. FRANTZESKAKIS: “GOOD PRACTICES IN APPLYING STRATEGIES FOR LESS CARS. REDUCING CAR CIRCULATION & PARKING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS DURING PEAK PERIODS”. II INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE RITMO NETWORK. IBIZA 15,16/3/0714


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