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Grade Nine Science. Space Unit. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWOoV4b49SI. What can we see in the sky?. What are some things that we can see in the sky?. Something that people have noticed and documented throughout time is that there are patterns in what we see in the sky. Constellations

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Grade nine science

Grade Nine Science

Space Unit



What can we see in the sky
What can we see in the sky?

  • What are some things that we can see in the sky?




Star constellations
Star Constellations time is that there are patterns in what we see in the sky.

  • Groups of stars that seem to form shapes and patterns are called constellations.

  • Some stars look as though they are close together when some are really much farther from Earth than others.

  • Constellations have been used for thousands of years as calendars, timekeepers and direction finders for travellers.





How big is the universe
How big is the universe seen with an unaided eye: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zr7wNQw12l8


What is the difference between stars and planets
What is the difference between Stars and Planets? seen with an unaided eye: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury.


Earth s rotation
Earth’s Rotation seen with an unaided eye: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury.

  • The Earth rotates (spins) on an axis.

  • It takes 24 hours to do one rotation around its axis.

  • This motion causes most stars, sun and moon to appear to rise in the east and set in the west.

  • The Earth’s axis is an imaginary line that connects the North Pole to the South Pole.



Earth s revolution
Earth’s Revolutionhttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • The Earth’s Revolution is the motion of one object travelling around another.

  • It takes Earth one year to travel and revolve in a circle around the sun.

  • This allows us to see different stars and constellations during different seasons.

  • The angle of the Earth’s axis and the Earth’s Revolution causes the different seasons.


What sound does the earth make
What sound does the Earth makehttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AVHXMLDvWA&feature=related


Sound of the sun
Sound of the Sunhttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGwDdTZBAEY&feature=related


Hubble telescope
Hubble Telescopehttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • Part 1

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpkrVw_E6Nw&feature=related

    Part 2

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=upXTZE57Z5U&feature=related


  • Part 3http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xt9Bvc8s_d0&feature=related

  • Part 4

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_9gsFcKh9I&feature=related


  • Part 5 http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnCvHnlNT7c&feature=related

    Part 6

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PwkW76jR1w&feature=related


  • Part 7 http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqYshf-jc7U&feature=related

    Part 8

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23MXsnpC-5Y&feature=related


Pictures from the hubble
Pictures from the Hubblehttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_Fs8oIdD7o&feature=fvw

    Hubble Deep Field

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcBV-cXVWFw


Parallel universe
Parallel Universe http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmyrE9I8HNg

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42-BpCivYJU&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=no_fOg9KNP4&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhB8EQPjC8c&feature=related


Universe mysteries
Universe Mysteries http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3skOSgFS6A&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06aw81kS53I&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_DPbkegBGo&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VoxMwYC_U4&feature=related



How big is the sun
How Big is the Sun? http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html


How big is the sun1
How big is the sunhttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I34FNr_peUk&feature=related


What is the universe
What is the Universe?http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • What things do we consider to be in the Universe?

    The universe is everything that exists, including all matter and energy everywhere.


The solar system
The Solar Systemhttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • What planets make up our solar system?

  • (In order from the sun) , Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (dwarf planet).


  • The planets revolve around the Sun in paths called http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.htmlorbits.

  • The orbits of most planets are nearly circular, with the Sun at the center of each orbit.

  • The period of time for one revolution around the sun is called one orbital period.

  • The earth’s orbital period is about 365 days.

  • The earth’s rotation around its axis once every 24h causes our day and night cycle.


  • The order from biggest planet to smallest is as follows. http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • The largest planet is Jupiter. It is followed by Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and finally, tiny Pluto (a dwarf planet). Jupiter is so big that all the other planets could fit inside it.


The inner vs outer planets
The Inner vs. Outer Planetshttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html

  • The inner planets (those planets that orbit close to the sun) are different from the Outer planets (those planets that orbit farther from the sun).

  • The inner planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They are relatively small, composed mostly of rock, and have few or no moons.



A closer look at the sun
A closer look at the Sun and Pluto (a dwarf planet). They are mostly huge, mostly gaseous, ringed, and have many moons (again, the exception is Pluto, the dwarf planet, which is small, rocky, and has one large moon plus two tiny ones).


The sun compared to other stars
The Sun Compared to Other Stars and Pluto (a dwarf planet). They are mostly huge, mostly gaseous, ringed, and have many moons (again, the exception is Pluto, the dwarf planet, which is small, rocky, and has one large moon plus two tiny ones).


Exploring the solar system where exactly are we
Exploring the Solar System: Where Exactly Are We? and Pluto (a dwarf planet). They are mostly huge, mostly gaseous, ringed, and have many moons (again, the exception is Pluto, the dwarf planet, which is small, rocky, and has one large moon plus two tiny ones).

  • http://personal.nbnet.nb.ca/hartt/Solar%20system/sun.htm





Probes to the planets
Probes to the Planets Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • A space probe is an unpiloted spacecraft sent to explore parts of the solar system beyond Earth.

  • The probe collects information and transmits it back to Earth.


Mercury
Mercury Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Closest planet to the Sun.

  • Recieves 10 times the amount of sunlight than Earth giving it 400 degrees celsius daytime temperatures.

  • It has no atmosphere to trap heat so nighttime temperatures fall to –180 degrees celsius.

  • Has craters all over planet.


Venus
Venus Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Has a thick atmosphere that can reflect sunlight.

  • Brightest planet in the sky.

  • Second planet from the Sun.

  • Atmosphere is mainly made of carbon dioxide. This gas acts like the glass of a greenhouse, keeping the surface temperatures high enough to melt lead.

  • Venus is hard to explore because of its thick atmosphere.


Earth
Earth Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Third planet from the Sun.

  • Atmosphere mainly contains nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapour.

  • There is also a small amount of ozone that filters out some of the Sun’s radiation but lets enough through for life on Earth.

  • Water covers 70% of Earth.


Mars Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Fourth planet from the Sun.

  • Called the Red Planet because of the reddish color of its soil.

  • Space Probe, Pathfinder, landed on Mars in 1997 and provided us with first hand photos of the planet.

  • Evidence that Mars once had volcanoes, glaciers, and floods of water.


Jupiter
Jupiter Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Fifth planet from the sun.

  • Largest of all planets.

  • 11 times the diameter of Earth.

  • Has a giant red spot where huge hurricanes form fed by constant high winds.

  • Has 16 moons.

  • Has orbiting rings of rock.


Saturn
Saturn Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • 6th planet from the sun

  • Second largest planet.

  • Atmosphere is cloudy because of its quick rotation.

  • Has over 1000 separate rings.

  • Average temperature is – 180 degrees Celsius.


Uranus
Uranus Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • 7th planet from the Sun.

  • 4 times the size of Earth.

  • Rotates on its side.

  • Atmosphere is mainly made up of hydrogen with some helium and methane.

  • Has winds that blow up to 500 km/ h.

  • Takes 84 years to complete one orbit.


Neptune
Neptune Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • 8th planet from the Sun.

  • First planet to be located by mathematical predictions.

  • Orbits the Sun every 165 years.

  • 4.5 billions km away from the Sun.

  • Windiest planet 1000+ km/h

  • Made mainly of ice



Pluto
Pluto Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • The International Astronomical Union (IAU) formally downgraded Pluto from an official planet to a dwarf planet.

  • According to the new rules a planet meets three criteria: it must orbit the Sun, it must be big enough for gravity to squash it into a round ball, and it must have cleared other things out of the way in its orbital neighborhood.



Planetary moons
Planetary Moons Sun and on the four largest planets.

  • Large natural objects that revolve around planets are called satellites or moons.

  • The moon we have orbiting Earth has no atmosphere.

  • 1610 Galileo was the first person to see four of Jupiter’s moons.


Planetary moon count in 1998
Planetary Moon count in 1998 Sun and on the four largest planets.


Planetary moon count in 2008
Planetary Moon Count in 2008 Sun and on the four largest planets.



Asteroids
Asteroidshttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/moons_table.html

  • rocky objects that travel throughout space.

  • They are usually smaller than planets but larger than meteorites.

  • Between Mars and Jupiter there is ring of asteroids called an asteroid belt.

  • 1937 an asteroid named Hermes came within 800,000 km of Earth.

  • Asteroids are rich in minerals which humans may have to mine someday.


Meteoroid
Meteoroid http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/moons_table.html

  • A lump of rock or metal that is trapped by the Earth’s gravity and pulled down through the Earth’s atmosphere.

  • As it falls it rubs against the molecules of the air causing friction. This friction causes the meteoroid to become hot and vaporize.

  • This produces a bright streak across the sky.

  • If the object is large enough to hit the ground before totally vaporizing, it is called a Meteorite.


Comets
Comets http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/moons_table.html

  • A comet is a chunk of frozen matter that travels in a very long orbit around the Sun.


Distances in space
Distances in Spacehttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/moons_table.html

  • Distances in space are very large, so scientific notation is used to abbreviate these large measurements.

  • Using this notation, a number is written with a digit between 1 and 9 before the decimal, followed by a power of 10.


How are distances measured in space
How are Distances Measured http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/moons_table.htmlin Space?

  • To measure long distances with as much accuracy as possible, they use the largest baselines available.

  • One way that scientists measure distances in space is to use the diameter of the Earth. This method could be used to determine the distance to the moon or a nearby planet.


  • The largest baseline available is the diameter of the Earth’s orbit. This is used to help scientists calculate distances to the stars nearest to our solar system.

  • The distance from our Sun to the next nearest star that you can see without a telescope is about 4.1 x 1013 km. This star is called Alpha Centauri.


  • The light year is another measurement of distance that scientists use.

  • A light year is the distance that light travels in one year.

  • Light travels at about 300, 000 km / second.

  • In one year it can travel 9.46 x 1012 . So the distance to the nearest star is 4.3 light years away.


The sun an important star
The Sun: An Important Star scientists use.

  • The sun provides us with the energy needed by all plants and animals on Earth

  • It’s gravitational pull keeps us in our steady orbit.

  • Because the Sun is the closet star to Earth, it is the brightest object in the sky. It gives off so much light energy that you cannot see the other stars until the Sun has set.


  • The Sun’s energy comes from a process called Nuclear Fusion.

  • Nuclear Fusion occurs because inside the Sun the temperature and pressure are so high that substances fuse (join together) to form new substances.

  • In this process, large amounts of heat, light and other forms of energy that travel out from the Sun through Space.




Characteristics of stars
Characteristics of Stars slower than light.

  • The color of stars tell us something about their temperature.

  • A relatively cool star glows red.

  • A very hot one glows a bluish-white or even blue.


  • A spectroscope is an instrument used by astronomers to look at the light given off by the Sun and other stars.

  • This device splits light into a pattern of colors so we can see them as separate lines of color.

  • It can also tell what chemical elements make up a star, how much of each element each star contains, the temperature of a star and the direction the star is moving.


Death of a star
Death of a Star at the light given off by the Sun and other stars.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCMXV8j2GtE

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysJ4Nj33rIo&feature=related


  • Stars are also classified by their brightness. at the light given off by the Sun and other stars.

  • There are six categories, with the brightest stars called first magnitude and the faintest stars called sixth magnitude stars.

  • Apparent Magnitude – how bright a star appears to you.

  • Absolute Magnitude – actual amount of light given off .


The life of a star
The Life of a Star at the light given off by the Sun and other stars.

  • Stars follow a predictable series of stages: they are born, they develop and die.

  • Gravity is the force that pulls objects towards each other. The more mass that an object has, the more gravity it exerts.

    The Sun has stronger gravity than Earth.

    The force gets smaller as the distance between objects increases.


How do stars form
How do Stars form? at the light given off by the Sun and other stars.

  • All stars begin their lives in nebulas.

  • Nebulas are huge clouds of dust and gases, mainly hydrogen and helium.

  • Dust and gases swirl around, breaking into clumps and contracting because of gravitational forces.

  • As the dust and gasses swirl around they become bigger and their gravitational force becomes stronger.



  • Stars the size of the Sun or smaller are called Red Giants. clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Stars with masses 10 times or more larger than the Sun’s become Red Supergiants.

  • A star the size of the Sun or smaller is said to have “die” when the nuclear reactions die down, the core shrinks and the outer layers of the star drift away. This becomes a dwarf star.

  • Dwarf stars are stars with a higher temperature than red or yellow stars.


Supernovas
Supernovas clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A supernova is an enormous explosion that occurs at the end of a large star’s life.

  • By this stage the star has used up the fuels needed to produce energy by the process of nuclear fission.


Neutron stars
Neutron Stars clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • When a star is about 10 times the mass of the Sun dies, the resulting core is called a neutron star. This star is composed of neutrons.

  • A Pulsar is a type of a neutron star that emit pulses of very high radio waves.

  • Pulsars are very small, about 20 km in diameter with very dense with the mass of a normal star.


Black holes
Black Holes clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • When a star about 30 times the mass of the Sun dies, the resulting core is called a black hole.

  • A black hole is a small, very dense object with a force of gravity so strong that nothing can escape from it.

  • Even light cannot be radiated away from its surface.


Video
Video clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcBV-cXVWFw


Unit 1 matter
Unit 1- Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • What is matter?

    • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

  • Can matter change?

    • Provide examples. (Snow melting, water boiling, water freezing, concrete hardens, paper yellows.)


1 2 properties of matter
1.2 Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • What do we mean by the properties of an object?

    • A property is simply a characteristic that we can use to describe something.

    • There are physical properties and chemical properties.


1 2 physical properties of matter
1.2 Physical Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A physical property does not involve a substance becoming a new substance.

  • There are many types of physical properties that you may want to describe:

    • Colour - red, green, blue…?

    • Texture - smooth, fine, coarse…?

    • Taste - sour, salty, sweet, …?


1 2 other physical properties of matter
1.2 Other Physical Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • States of matter at room temperature

    • solid, liquid, or gas.

  • Hardness is the measure of the resistance of a solid to being scratched or dented.

  • Malleable is the ability of a solid to be hammered or bent into different. Aluminum foil is malleable. Gold is malleable since it can be hammered into thin sheets.


1 2 other physical properties of matter1
1.2 Other Physical Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Copper is ductile since it can be pulled into wires.

  • Ductility is the ability of a solid to be pulled into wires.

  • Melting and boiling points - the temperatures at which a substance changes state from solid to liquid, and from liquid to gas.


  • Crystal form clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start. . the structure (blocks, cubes, etc.) of the tiny particles of a solid that are repeated throughout a sample of that solid (i.e. salt crystals all have the same shape)

  • Example, salt.

  • Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent such as water. Salt is soluble while pepper is not. Oil is also not soluble.


  • Viscosity clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start. – is how easily a liquid flows: the thicker the liquid, the more viscous it is

  • Density – the amount of matter per unit volume of that matter


1 2 chemical properties of matter
1.2 Chemical Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A chemical property describes the behaviour of a substance as it becomes a new substance.

  • Combustibility describes the ability of a substance to react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. If a substance is combustible or flammable, it will burn when exposed to a flame. A substance that will not burn is described as nonflammable.

    • List some materials that are combustible.

    • List some materials that are nonflammable.


1 2 chemical properties of matter1
1.2 Chemical Properties of Matter clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Reaction with acid. The ability of a substance to react with acid is a chemical property.

    • Name some substances that react with acids such as vinegar.

    • Would you drink acid?

    • Look at the side of a Coke can.


1 5 density
1.5 Density clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Which is heavier: a 12 inch bar of gold or a pillow full of feathers?

  • A 12 inch bar of gold weighs more than a pillow full of feathers even though the pillow takes up more space. Why?

  • Gold is more dense. It has more matter per unit volume.


1 5 density1
1.5 Density clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Density is the amount of matter per unit volume of that matter.

  • Density(D) = Mass(m) / Volume(V)

  • If you know any two of the three variables (D,m, or V), you can solve for the third.

    m = D x V V = m / D


Sample density question 1
Sample density question #1 clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

If a rock has a mass of 49 g and occupies a volume of 7 cm3, what is the density?

D = m / V

= 49 g / 7 cm3

= 7.0 g/ cm3


Solve these sample density questions
Solve these sample density questions clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • An object has a mass of 250 g and occupies a volume of 14.5 cm3, what is the density?

  • A piece of wood occupies a volume of 46 cm3 and it has a mass of 100 g. What is the density of the wood?

  • An unknown metal has a density of 2.6 g/cm3 and a mass of 15 g. How much volume does this piece of metal occupy?

  • A sample of a particular liquid has a density of 6.85 kg/L and it occupies a volume of 3.4 L. How much does this particular sample weigh?


Answer to question 1
Answer to question #1 clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

D = m / V

= 250 g / 14.5 cm3

= 17.24 g/ cm3


Answer to question 2
Answer to question #2 clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

D = m / V

= 100g / 46 cm3

= 2.17 g/ cm3


Answer to question 3
Answer to question #3 clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

D = m / V

V = m / D

= 15 g / 2.6 g/cm3

= 5.77 cm3


Answer to question 4
Answer to question #4 clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

D = m / V

M = D x V

= 6.85 kg/L x 3.4 L

= 23.29 kg

** Note that volume can be expressed as cm3, m3, ml or even L.


Hand out whmis table

Hand out WHMIS Table clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

Assignment #1

Create a simple map of your home and indicate where you would have found products with some of the hazardous household product symbols that we have discussed.


Approximate densities of some common materials
Approximate Densities of Some Common Materials clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.


Water is more dense than ice
Water is more dense than ice! clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Why is this so important?

    • It means that ice floats in water instead of sinking. Think of the poor fish if this was the not the case.

  • Why is ice less dense than water?

    • When water freezes, it expands which means that the same mass of water is spread over a greater volume.


Homework
Homework clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Answer questions 2,3,4 on page 25 of the text.


Physical and chemical changes

Physical and Chemical Changes clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.


A burning candle what happens
A burning candle – what happens? clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • As the candle burns, the wax melts ( a solid becomes a liquid), and then it hardens (a liquid becomes a solid). These are physical changes.

  • The wax also combusts producing heat and light. This chemical change involves the wax becoming carbon dioxide, water and energy.


What is a physical change
What is a physical change? clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • In a physical change, the substance involved remains the same substance, even though it may change state or form. When candle wax melts, it is still wax.

  • Changes of state – melting, boiling, freezing, condensation, and dissolving – are physical changes .

  • Most physical changes are easy to reverse.


What is a chemical change
What is a chemical change? clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • In a chemical change, the original substance is changed into one or more different substances that have different properties.

  • As candle wax melts, some of the wax particles combine with oxygen to produce water vapour, carbon dioxide, heat and light.it is still wax.

  • Chemical changes always involves the production of new substances. Examples include burning, cooking and rusting.

  • Most chemical changes are difficult to reverse.


Physical and chemical changes video
Physical and Chemical clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start. Changes Video

  • http://ca.video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=physical+and+chemical+properties&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-501&fr2=tab-web&tnr=21&vid=000139877548


Clues that a chemical change has happened
Clues That a Chemical Change Has Happened clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A colour appears.

  • Heat or light is given off.

  • Bubbles of gas are formed.

  • A solid material forms in a liquid.

  • The change is difficult to reverse.


Models of matter the particle theory
Models of Matter: The Particle Theory clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • There are 4 principles to Particle Theory.

  • All matter is made up of tiny particles.

  • All particles of one substance are the same. Different substances are made of different particles.

  • Particles are always moving. The more energy the particles have, the faster they move.

  • There are attractive forces between the particles. These forces are stronger when the particles are closer together.


2 1 mixtures substances and solutions
2.1 Mixtures, Substances and Solutions clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Pure substances only contain one type of particle.

    Ex.) Aluminum foil contains only aluminum foil particles.


Mixture
Mixture clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A mixture contains at least two different pure substances.

  • Heterogeneous Mixture is when particles don’t mix well with one another. Each part can be visibly seen.

    Example: Pizza.


Solution
Solution clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • A solution may be made up of liquids, solids, or gases. Air is a solution of gases.


Element
Element clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.


Compounds
Compounds clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different elements in a fixed proportion.

  • They are formed when elements combine together in chemical reactions.

  • For example, in water there is always twice as many particles of hydrogen as particles of oxygen.


Molecules
Molecules clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • When two or more atoms join together, a molecule is formed.

  • Molecules can contain two atoms or many thousands of atoms.

  • For example, in the element of oxygen there are two oxygen atoms in each molecule.


Naming compounds how elements combine
Naming Compounds clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start. How Elements Combine

  • Rule 1: Metals combine with nonmetals in many compounds.

  • Rule 2: Write the name of the metal first and the nonmetal second.

  • Rule 3: Change the ending of the non-metal to “ide.”

  • Rule 4: Each atom has its own combining capacity.

  • Rule 5: Atoms combine so that each can fill its combining capacity.


Ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds clumps are dense and not enough for nuclear fission to start.

  • Ionic Compounds are usually made of a metallic element(s) and a non-metallic element(s).

  • Ionic compounds are named using the full name of the metal followed by a shortened name of the nonmetal with an -ideending.

  • The shortened name of the nonmetal is usually the first syllable of the name of the nonmetal.



Let s name some compounds
Let’s Name Some Compoundshttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/science10/unitb/namionic.html

  • CaO (lime) ► 1 atom chlorine, 1 atom oxygen.

    combination of Calcium and Oxygen

    Calcium Oxide

    * CaCl2 ► 1 atom calcium, 2 atoms of chorine.

    combination of Calcium and Chlorine

    Calcium Chloride


Try some on your own
Try Some on Your Ownhttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/science10/unitb/namionic.html

  • AlCl3 =

  • NaBr =

  • KF =

  • AgO =

  • Al2O3 =


Combining capacity
Combining Capacityhttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/science10/unitb/namionic.html

  • The ability to combine with other elements.


3 2 developing models of matter
3.2 Developing Models of Matterhttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/science10/unitb/namionic.html

  • Throughout time, scientists have looked at the evidence around them, in an attempt to explain it.

  • Scientists have developed many models of matter.

  • These models have been modified, combined, or rejected as new evidence was discovered.


John dalton s atomic model
John Dalton’s Atomic Modelhttp://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/science10/unitb/namionic.html

  • In this model, an atom is a solid sphere.

  • Dalton’s model states that matter must contain positive and negative charges.

  • Opposite charges attract and like charges repel.

  • Atoms combine to form molecules because of electrical attractions between atoms.



3 4 inside the atom
3.4 Inside the Atom one or more electrons.

  • Subatomic particles – “pieces” of an atom.

    The particles that atoms are made of.

  • Electrons and protons are subatomic particles.


Electrons and protons
Electrons and Protons one or more electrons.

  • Electrons are negatively charged particles.

  • Neutrons are neutral particles

  • Protons are positively charged particles.

  • Protons are important because the number of protons in an atom determines what the atom is. For example, any atom with one proton is a Hydrogen atom.




Standard atomic notation
Standard Atomic Notation of an atom.

  • An internationally recognized system that allows anyone to communicate information about any atom.

  • Write the chemical symbol of the atom and place the atomic number to the lower left and the mass number to the upper left.


3 4 bohr s planetary model of the atom
3.4 Bohr’s Planetary Model of the Atom of an atom.

  • Bohr suggested that:

  • Electrons move around the nucleus in circular paths called orbits, like planets around the sun.

  • Each electron has a definite amount of energy.

  • The order of filling of electrons in the first three orbits is 2, 8, 8.

  • Electrons are more stable when they are at the lower energy.


Assignment
Assignment of an atom.

  • Draw Bohr-Rutherford diagrams for the first 20 elements of the periodic table.


4 1 organizing elements
4.1 Organizing Elements of an atom.

  • One quality that could be measured for an element was its atomic mass.

  • Atomic mass is the average mass of an atom of an element.


Dmitri mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev of an atom.

  • Mendeleev was the first person to organize the first periodic table by arranging the elements in order of increasing atomic mass.

  • When an element or group of elements seemed to repeat properties he had seen before, he started a new row.

  • He eventually found that elements with similar properties fit into the same vertical columns.


Mendeleev s periodic law
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law of an atom.

  • If the elements are arranged according to their atomic mass, a pattern can be seen in which similar properties occur regularly.



Questions
Questions in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Do questions on page 108

    # 1 - 5


Noble gases
Noble Gases in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Noble Gases are the elements that occupy the far right column of the periodic table.

    ( He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn )

    * All gases at room temperature, the noble gases are often called inert gases because they are so unreactive, almost never forming chemical compounds.


Alkali metals
Alkali Metals in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • The elements that occupy the far left column of the periodic table are called Alkali Metals.

  • These elements are extremely reactive.


Halogens
Halogens in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Halogens occupy the 17th column of the periodic table. ( F, Cl, Br, I, At)

  • These elements are the most reactive non-metals.


Metalloids
Metalloids in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Metalloids are elements that possess both metallic and nonmetallic properties.

  • They are found in different groups on the far right side of the periodic table.

  • Examples: Silicon, boron, germanium, arsenic, selenium, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine are all metalloids.



Homework1
Homework in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Answer questions 2 and 3 on page 30.


Corrosion

Corrosion in the properties of different groups of elements.


What is corrosion
What is corrosion? in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Corrosion is the slow chemical change that occurs when a metal reacts with oxygen from the air. This chemical reaction forms a new substance called an oxide.

  • Different kinds of corrosion:

    • Rusting

    • Aluminum corrosion

    • Silver tarnish


Rusting
Rusting in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Rusting is a chemical change that involves iron, oxygen from air and water, and salt or other minerals that may be in dissolved in the water.

  • Where do we normally see rust?

  • What can we do to prevent rust?


Aluminum corrosion
Aluminum Corrosion in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Aluminum has a chemical property similar to iron in that it reacts with oxygen to form an oxide.

  • The aluminum oxide that forms is strong and it is unaffected by water.


Silver tarnish
Silver tarnish in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • Unlike iron and aluminum, silver does not react with oxygen but it does react with sulphur.

  • Sulphur is found in

    • Mustard

    • Eggs

    • Acid rain

  • Silver sulphide causes silver to develop a black coating.

  • The black layer is annoying but it can be removed by polishing the silver.


Preventing corrosion
Preventing Corrosion in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • There are many ways to prevent corrosion:

    • Painting metal prevents oxygen from getting at the metal

    • Use plastics instead of steel

    • Cathodic protection – using one metal to attract corrosion(oxygen) from another


Combustion
Combustion in the properties of different groups of elements.

  • In combustion, a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen and releases energy.

  • The energy may be in the form of heat and light.

  • Many substances can act as fuels.

    Eg. Wood, diesel oil, and kerosene


Combustion the fire triangle

Oxygen in the properties of different groups of elements.

Fuel

Heat

CombustionThe Fire Triangle

  • The fire triangle is a convenient way to remember the three components of any combustion reaction.

  • Removing any one of these makes the triangle incomplete and puts out the fire.


Combustion fossil fuels
Combustion in the properties of different groups of elements. Fossil Fuels

  • Fossil fuels were formed from plants, animals, and micro-organisms that lived millions of years ago.

    • Include coal, oil, natural gas and gasoline

  • Fossil fuels are made up of hydrocarbons

  • The main products of burning fossil fuels is carbon dioxide and water vapour


Combustion fossil fuels1
Combustion in the properties of different groups of elements. Fossil Fuels

Hydrocarbon + oxygen => carbon dioxide + water

reactants products


Combustion pollution
Combustion in the properties of different groups of elements. Pollution

  • Under ideal conditions, the combustion of hydrocarbons produces only carbon dioxide and water.

  • What happens if there is not enough oxygen or if the hydrocarbons are not pure?

    • Carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides may be produced.

    • These are all pollutants.


Homework2
Homework in the properties of different groups of elements.

Answer questions 1-5 on page 39


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