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Numerical Modeling and Observation of the Fine Sediments in the Rio de la Plata Estuary Claudia G. Simionato CIMA/CONICET-UBA. 2 nd MEETING OF IFAECI (UMI 3351) Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 25 th 2011. Outline. History of the cooperation France-Argentina-Uruguay
2nd MEETING OF IFAECI (UMI 3351)
Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 25th 2011
This cooperation starts as an initiative of IFREMER which manifested interest in applying its large experience in sedimentological observation and modeling to the Río de la Plata
Efforts to understand processes in the Río de la Plata had already started in the frame of the FREPLATA I Project, but sedimentology was not included yet
The contact between IFREMER and the regional research centers with interest and potential started
A proposal oriented to begin studies on sedimentological processes was submitted to the French Fund for the Global Environment (FFEM) and a budget of around €1,200,000 was approved
Sediments moved by the flow are the main source of contaminants, particularly heavy metals.
In the MTZ sediments (and contaminants) are accumulated at the bottom flocculation, reduction of the current speed?
Sediments are then resuspended by tides, currents and waves and contaminants enter in the trophic chain, with impact on fishes and people
The entrance channels to the harbors of Buenos Aires and Montevideo demand continuous dredging
Optimization of the dredging operations is an important issue, which demands the understanding of the sedimentological dynamics
Ecological problems what to do with the highly contaminated muds dredged on harbors?
It houses a rich ecosystem in which a large number of species of crabs, fishes, turtles and migratory birds live.
It is also the nursing area for a number of species commercially fished.
Ongoing projects show that the bay is being eroded at very high rates, apparently by changes in the wind and waves climate
The fine sediment dynamics is directly related with the erosion of these shallow areas
Also, the shallow areas of the internal part of the system, where Buenos Aires is located, are object of large erosion and environmental pressure because of anthropogenic actions.
The Paraná River Delta progresses over the Río de la Plata. At the present growing rates it will be very close to Buenos Aires at the end of this century.
This morphological evolution will cause impacts on the uses of the Río de la Plata: drinking water, sailing, amusement, dredging, etc.
It will affect, particularly the Mitre Channel (access to Buenos Aires Port).
The consequences of the changes can be mitigated only with planning, what needs as primary information the understanding and modeling of the sedimentological processes.
Turbidity is the main limitation to the phytoplankton grow. Therefore the modeling of the population dynamics rely on a proper modeling of the sedimentological variables.
Environmental conditions have major influence on the distribution and structure of the species in the Río de la Plata.
A connection (it is not clear yet whether this is causal or casual) is observed between the spawning regions and the turbidity front.
Understanding the relationship between the environment and the fisheries is crucial for suggesting protection and conservation plans in an ecosystemic management.
´The bentonic organisms are very dependent upon the bentonic environment.
Therefore, the distribution of sediments determines in a large extent the diversity in a region.
The morphodynamical evolution by natural causes or anthropogenic action can, therefore, have a large impact on the biodiversity of the estuary
The aim of the FREPLATA/FFEM project was to set up the capabilities for state of the arts sediments modeling at the scale of the basin
Sedimentological processes are many and very complex: transportation, decantation, flocculation, saltation, resuspension, consolidation…Its modeling demands understanding and good modeling capabilities of the hydrodynamics(tides, waves, currents, density field)In contrast with the hydrodynamical processes, which obey to universal physical laws, sedimentology is highly dependent on the site need of a large number of observations
Very large and shallow
Enormous solid discharge
In contrast with most of estuaries, highly sensitive to wind variability
Hydrosedimentological modeling: IMFIA, CIMA, INA, IFREMER
Waves modeling: SHN
Data acquisition: SHN, SOHMA, INIDEP (cooperation of IFREMER, CIMA and IMFIA)
Data analysis: INIDEP, SHN, CIMA, IMFIA, INA, IFREMER
Fellowship for a PhD student at CIMA (Diego Moreira)
Receiving a postdoc from IFREMER (at CIMA) (Caroline Tessier)
Courses at Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FCEN-UBA) training to students and researchers on sediments dynamics, observation, modeling and metrology (Florence Cayocca, Francis Gohin, Pierre Le Hir, Valerie Garnier, Michel Repecaud)
The buoy measures:
temperature, salinity, turbidity, oxígen, chlorophyll-a,
Data are currently received at CIMA
7 oceanographic cruises with 26 stations each (CTD, chlorophyll, turbidity, water and sediments samples)
1 included yo-yo stations
MODIS and SeaWifs in 1 km y 250m, calibrated to SM and chlorophyll-a with IFREMER’s algorithms
Data were analyzed to observe the main patterns of variability in the estuary
Understanding the consolidation processes
Hierarchy of one-way nested models
INIDEP is developing a new remote sensing program and is interested on color data processing (resp. Carlos Lasta)
IAFE-CONICET is doing effort in the same direction (resp. Antonio Gagliardini)
Contacts and interactions already started
CERC (Centro de Estudios Regionales Costeros) and INIDEP are developing fisheries studies and collecting samples in the Río de la Plata (resp. Andrés Jaureguizar); they are incorporating PNA (Coast Guard) ships to make permanent monitoring and to assist in campaigns.
Contacts and interactions already started
FREPLATA II is a management project which aim is to start up the application of the Strategic Action Plan to reduce contamination and restore habitats proposed by FREPLATA I (Percy Nuggent)
The monitoring of the Río de la Plata is one of their needs they will probably be interested in contributing to maintain the instruments operating
Contacts and interactions already started (meeting on May 3rd)
SHN and DG-FCEN are conducting a project which aim is to observe and study the coastal erosion in the Buenos Aires littoral, including Samborombón Bay (resp. Walter Dragani and Jorge Codignotto)
Our researches are complementary.
CIMA and CERC are already cooperating in the project
CONICET (Dr. Jorge Tezón and collaborators) is doing actions in order to sign an agreement with ANII (Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación) from Uruguay to facilitate the submission of joint proposals
ANPCyT PICT (has been approved and will be financed) CIMA-SHN-INIDEP-IFREMER
Study of the sedimentological processes in the MTZ and their relation to fisheries
Cruises to maintain the instruments operational
Oceanographic and biological observations in
Waves observations in the upper estuary
One fellowship for a PhD student at CIMA
ECOS (submitted on April 15th) CIMA-INIDEP-IFREMER
Formation of human resources in satellite data
Installation of processing capabilities at INIDEP
Installation of a metrology lab at CIMA/DCAO
Further formation of human resources on numerical
modeling of sediments and biogeochemical processes
CIMA, IFREMER, INIDEP, CERC, SHN, INA, IAFE and IMFIA are willing to pursue and enhance their cooperation in this synergic multidisciplinary research.
The UMI provides an excellent framework for this collaboration.
The motivations and aims of the research conducted by this group of people contribute to the UMI agenda.
Through the UMI it might be possible to interact with more actors (particularly from social sciences) in order to make our research reach the society and/or be a part of a larger project in which our research might be applied to concrete problems.