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QoS Roaming with 1xEV-DO Rev. A. IRT Macau, March 2007. 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts Walkthrough of QoS Setup Example of Flows Roaming Issues. QoS Application Categories. The majority of wireless applications can be divided into three major categories:

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Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

QoS Roaming with1xEV-DO Rev. A

IRT Macau, March 2007


Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

  • 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts

  • Walkthrough of QoS Setup

  • Example of Flows

  • Roaming Issues


Qos application categories

QoS Application Categories

  • The majority of wireless applications can be divided into three major categories:

    • Expedited Forwarding – Delay-sensitive (e.g., VoIP, VT-audio)

    • Assured Forwarding– Rate-sensitive (e.g., Video streaming)

    • Best Effort– Delay-tolerant (e.g., FTP, HTTP)

  • 3GPP2 further classifies the categories as:

    • Conversational, Interactive, Streaming, and/or Push-to-X

    • Which are further classified by applications:

      • Video, Audio, Speech, Signaling, Text, and Gaming

The above classification is similar to the taxonomy listed in C.R1001-E (TSB-58E).


Qos application categories1

QoS Application Categories

  • Four main criteria are generally used to define the behavior of a QoS application:

    • Delay (Latency): Maximum allowable delay between sending the packet from one end point and reception of that packet at the far end point.

    • Jitter: The variance of inter-arrival delay from one packet to the next packet within the same IP flow/stream.

    • Reliability (PER): The number of packets that are in error out of the total number of packets transmitted.

    • Target Throughput: The minimum required throughput for a flow.

The above classification is similar to the taxonomy listed in C.R1001-E (TSB-58E).


Qos flow profile ids

QoS Flow Profile IDs

  • Flow Profile ID

    • Identifies a flow profile specifying the air interface parameters needed to support a particular type of IP flow. These include:

    • Determines the parameters for RLP and RTCMAC flows

    • Defined in 3GPP2 C.R1001 (TSB-58)

      • 0 (default) is defined as Best Effort (BE)

      • 0 – 16,383: standard FlowProfileIDs

      • 16,384 – 32,767: proprietary FlowProfileIDs


Standard flow profiles for audio speech

Standard Flow Profiles for Audio/Speech


Standard flow profiles for video texting and gaming

Standard Flow Profiles for Video, Texting, and Gaming


Standard flow profiles for signaling

Standard Flow Profiles for Signaling


Flows in 1xev do rev a qos architecture

Flows in 1xEV-DO Rev A. QoS Architecture

  • Flows allow for QoS from the application to the air interface:

    • IP Flows (Application Flows) – data streams generated by an application

      • At the OSI application layer, residing outside the 1xEV-DO protocol stack

    • RLP Flows –reside at the 1xEV-DO application layer

      • Use either Multi-flow Packet Application (MFPA) or Enhanced MFPA (EMPA)

      • These flows can be mapped back to the upper layer IP flows

    • FTCMAC and RTCMAC Flows – reside at the 1xEV-DO MAC layer

      • RTCMAC Subtype 3 allows for prioritization of each RLP flow on the reverse link

      • QoS aware scheduler provides QoS handling all RLP flows on FTCMAC

      • These flows can be associated to the upper layer RLP flows

  • Applications at the AT may require multiple instances of these flows

    • E.g. VT may require Control, Audio, and Video flows in each direction


Ip rlp rtcmac flow mapping

IP-RLP-RTCMAC Flow Mapping


Interaction between flows

Interaction Between Flows

CRX

Payload

Payload

IP Header

IP Header

PDSN

AN

RLP NN1

IP Flow KK1

RLP NN1

IP Flow KK1

RTCMAC 01

Stream

Substream NN1

TFT

Reverse

IP Flow KK1

Aux A10

Packet Filter

RLP NN2

IP Flow KK2

FTCMAC

RLP NN2

IP Flow KK2

Forward

IP Flow KK2


Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

  • 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts

  • Walkthrough of QoS Setup

  • Example of Flows

  • Roaming Issues


Subscriber qos profile

Subscriber QoS Profile

AAA

PDSN

AN

  • Subscriber QoS Profile

    • Subscriber’s HAAA provides it to the PDSN after packet data authentication

    • PDSN stores it and forwards relevant portion to the AN

    • It allows the AN to authorize QoS requests received from the AT

PPP negotiation

Access Request

Access Accept

Subscriber QoS Profile:

- Max. authorized aggregate

bandwidth for BE traffic

- Authorized Flow Profile IDs

- Max. per flow priority

- Service Option profile

- Inter-user priority for BE traffic

- Allowed # of persistent TFTs

- Allowed DSCP markings

A11 Session Update

Subscriber QoS Profile:

- Max. authorized aggregate

bandwidth for BE traffic

- Authorized Flow Profile IDs

- Max. per flow priority

- Service Option profile

- Inter-user priority for BE traffic


Reservation labels requesting qos

Reservation Labels & Requesting QoS

AAA

PDSN

AN

A separateReservationKKQoSRequestFwd/Rev attribute is included for each IP flow being setup.

Each ReservationKKQoSRequest includes:

- AttributeID – contains reservation label (KK)

- R_QoS_SUB_BLOB – contains requested Flow

Profile ID(s) for that flow

ReservationKKQoS attributes are defined in C.S0024.

QoS SUB BLOBS are defined in X.S0011-004.

  • AT identifies and requests Flow Profile IDs for each IP flow

    • Reservation Labels are used to identify IP flows

    • AT selects Reservation Labels for each IP flow (forward and reverse flows)

    • AT selects one or more desired Flow Profile IDs for each flow

    • AT uses GAUP to send these reservation labels and Flow Profile IDs to AN

  • AttributeUpdateRequest

  • ReservationKKQoSRequestFwd

  • - Reservation Label

  • - Requested Flow Profile ID(s)

  • ReservationKKQoSRequestRev

  • - Reservation Label

  • - Requested Flow Profile ID(s)

  • Additional requests

  • :


Qos authorization granting flow profile ids

QoS Authorization & Granting Flow Profile IDs

AAA

PDSN

AN

ReservationKKQoSResponseFwd/Rev attributes are included for each requested IP flow.

Each ReservationKKQoSResponse includes:

- AttributeID – contains the reservation label (KK)

- G_QoS_SUB_BLOB – contains the granted Flow

Profile ID for that flow

  • AttributeUpdateRequest

  • ReservationKKQoSResponseFwd

  • - Reservation Label

  • - Granted Flow Profile ID(s)

  • ReservationKKQoSResponseRev

  • - Reservation Label

  • - Granted Flow Profile ID(s)

  • Additional responses

  • :

  • AN authorizes and grants a Flow Profile ID for each IP flow

    • AN uses subscriber QoS profile info to authorize Flow Profile ID requests

    • AN determines what Flow Profile ID it will grant for each request

    • AN uses GAUP to provide these granted Flow Profile IDs to AT


Radio link protocol rlp flows

Radio Link Protocol (RLP) Flows

AAA

PDSN

AN

All FlowNN attributes include an AttributeID field that contains the RLP flow number (NN).

An RLPID identifies the RLP flow and is not the RLP flow number (NN). RLPIDs allow MFPA to identify activated RLP flows without using prefixes.

Each active RLP flow is associated with an A10.

FlowNN attributes are defined in C.S0024.

  • AttributeUpdateRequest

  • FlowNNIdentificationFwd/Rev

  • - RLPID

  • FlowNNTimersFwd/Rev

  • - Abort and Flush Timers

  • FlowNNReservationFwd/Rev

  • - Reservation Label

  • Attributes for additional flows

  • :

  • AN sets up RLP flows

    • AN uses GAUP and initiates setup of RLP flows based pre-configured RLP flow to QoS Flow Profile ID configuration, activation, and mapping

    • RLP flow parameters are negotiated between AN and AT

    • Reservation labels are used to map one or more IP flows to each RLP flow


Reverse traffic channel mac rtcmac flows

Reverse Traffic Channel MAC (RTCMAC) Flows

AAA

PDSN

All attributes include an AttributeID field that contains the RTCMAC flow number (NN).

(Note: The RTCMAC flow number NN should not be confused with RLP flow number NN.)

Setting the bucket_levl_maxNN to a non-zero value activates an RTCMAC flow

Configuration attributes may include:

- MergeThresholdNN

- TransmissionModeNN

- BucketFactorNN

- T2PInflowRangeNN

- T2PTransFuncNN

AN

  • AttributeUpdateRequest

  • BucketLevelMaxNN

  • - bucket_levl_maxNN > 0

  • Configuration attributes

  • AssociatedFlowsNN

  • - Stream = stream number

  • - Substream = RLP flow NN

  • Attributes for additional flows

  • :

  • AN sets up RTCMAC flows

    • AN uses GAUP and initiates setup of RTCMAC flows based pre-configured RTCMAC to RLP flow associations, configuration parameters, and activation

    • Streamfield associates the RTCMAC flow with the application bound to that stream value during session negotiation

    • Substream field is the RLP Flow NN to be bound to the RTCMAC flow


Traffic flow templates tfts

Traffic Flow Templates (TFTs)

AAA

PDSN

RSVP ResvMessage and 3GPP2 OBJECTare defined in X.S0011-004

A10 connections:

- PPP and best effort flows

carried on the main A10

- Auxiliary A10s used for

additional IP flows.

- Each A10 may carry one

or more IP flow.

Packet Filters may include:

- Reservation Label

- Source or Dest IP Address

- Source or Dest Port

- Protocol /Next header

- IPSec SPI

- TOS / Traffic Class

- Type 2 Routing Header

- Home Address Option

AN

RSVP Resv Message with 3GPP2 OBJECT

TFT IPv4 or IPv6 IE. Forward Link. Create or Add filters to TFT.

Packet filter(s): Reservation Label, Transport Protocol, Dest Port, etc…

TFT IPv4 or IPv6 IE. Reverse Link. Create or Add filters to TFT.

Packet filter(s):Reservation Label, Transport Protocol, Source Port, etc…

Additional TFT IEs

:

  • AT sets up Packet Filters at the PDSN

    • Packet Filters are used to convey:

      • A10  IP flow mapping

      • IP layer QoS parameters

      • Packets treatment, including DSCP markings

    • Multiple Filters may be included in a single TFT IE


Review

Review

  • Quick review :

    • Subscriber’s QoS Profile information was retrieved for QoS authorization

    • Reservation Labels and Flow Profile IDs were assigned to each IP flow

    • RLP Flows associated with A10 connections were activated

    • Reservation Labels were used to setup IP flow  RLP flow mapping

    • RTCMAC Flows were activated and bound to Applications and RLP Flows

    • Packet Filters were setup at the PDSN for A10  IP flow mapping


Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

  • 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts

  • Walkthrough of QoS Setup

  • Example of Flows

  • Roaming Issues


Example flows used in a vt application

Example Flows used in a VT Application

CRX

Payload

Payload

IP Header

IP Header

PDSN

AN

RLP 05

Control (95)

RLP 05

Control (95)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 05

TFT

Control Rev

IP Flow 95

Aux A10

Control

Control Filter

FTCMAC

Control

RLP 11

Control (94)

RLP 11

Control (94)

Control Fwd

IP Flow 94


Example flows used in a vt application1

Example Flows used in a VT Application

CRX

PDSN

AN

RLP 05

Control (95)

RLP 05

Control (95)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 05

TFT

Control Rev

IP Flow 95

Aux A10

Control

RLP 06

Audio (97)

RLP 06

Audio (97)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 06

Control Filter

Payload

IP Header

Audio Rev

IP Flow 97

IP Header

Payload

Aux A10

Audio

Payload

IP Header

Audio Filter

RLP 11

Control (94)

RLP 11

Control (94)

IP Header

Payload

Control Fwd

IP Flow 94

FTCMAC

Control

Audio

RLP 12

Audio (96)

RLP 12

Audio (96)

Audio Fwd

IP Flow 96


Example flows used in a vt application2

Example Flows used in a VT Application

CRX

Payload

Payload

Payload

Payload

Payload

Payload

IP Header

IP Header

IP Header

IP Header

IP Header

IP Header

PDSN

AN

RLP 05

Control (95)

RLP 05

Control (95)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 05

TFT

Control Rev

IP Flow 95

Aux A10

Control

RLP 06

Audio (97)

RLP 06

Audio (97)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 06

Control Filter

Audio Rev

IP Flow 97

RLP 07

Video (99)

RLP 07

Video (99)

RTCMAC 01

Packet App

RLP 07

Video Rev

IP Flow 99

Aux A10

Audio

Audio Filter

RLP 11

Control (94)

RLP 11

Control (94)

Control Fwd

IP Flow 94

RLP 12

Audio (96)

RLP 12

Audio (96)

FTCMAC

Control

Audio

Video

Aux A10

Video

Audio Fwd

IP Flow 96

Video Filter

RLP 13

Video (98)

RLP 13

Video (98)

Video Fwd

IP Flow 98


Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

  • 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts

  • Walkthrough of QoS Setup

  • Example of Flows

  • Roaming Issues


Roaming issues qos flow profiles

Roaming Issues: QoS Flow Profiles

  • QoS Flow Profiles

    • What Flow Profile IDs do your QoS applications support?

    • What Flow Profile IDs do your partner’s applications support?

    • How will your QoS applications respond if requested Flow Profiles IDs are not available in a visited network?

      • Application proceeds using Best Effort traffic?

      • User is informed that the application in not available in that network?

    • What is the mechanism for synchronizing Flow Profile IDs with partners

      • Technical Data Sheets?

    • Do you allow for VERBOSE negotiation of Flow Profile parameters instead of using Flow Profile IDs


Roaming issues end to end qos

Roaming Issues: End-to-End QoS

CRX

Ethernet

PDSN

Access

Network

BSC/PCF

BTS

PPP

Core

Backbone

Backhaul

1xEV-DO Rev A

  • QoS Flow Profiles

  • Multiple RLP flows

  • Multiple RTCMAC flows

  • Proprietary

  • E.g. Diffserv using RTCMAC Flow NN

  • Auxiliary A10s

  • DiffServ using DSCP markings in TFT packet filters

Core

Backbone

Backhaul

1xEV-DO Rev A

  • QoS Flow Profiles

  • Multiple RLP flows

  • QoS aware scheduler

  • Proprietary

  • E.g. Diffserv using scheduler ID

  • Auxiliary A10s

  • DiffServ using DSCP markings in TFT packet filters


Roaming issues end to end qos1

Roaming Issues: End-to-End QoS

  • QoS in the Core (i.e. between networks)

    • How is QoS supported between the visited and home networks for QoS applications that terminate back to the home network?

      • Will your applications specify DSCP markings in the TFT packet filters sent to visited PDSNs?

        • How will the CRX interconnect network support these DSCP markings?

      • Will your PDSNs support DSCP markings provided by roamers?

    • What about inter-carrier, non-roaming scenario?


Qos roaming with 1xev do rev a

  • Bryan Gurganus

  • [email protected]

  • +1 858 651 2832

  • Questions?


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