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This project is funded by the European Union Projekat finansira Evropska Unija. Guidelines for the elaboration of EXternal emergency plans. Ike van der Putte. Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Projekat realizuje Human Dynamics Konzorcijum. Overview.

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guidelines for the elaboration of external emergency plans

This project is funded by the European Union

Projekat finansira Evropska Unija

Guidelines for the elaboration of EXternal emergency plans

Ike van der Putte

Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium

Projekatrealizuje Human Dynamics Konzorcijum

  • Requirements EEP according to SEVESO II/III
  • Responsibilities/ Specifics
  • Concept and Structure of Emergency Planning
  • Contents of an EEP
  • Information/communication
requirements eep 1
  • Seveso II/III :
  • The emergency plans must be established with the objectives of:
  • — containing and controlling incidents so as to minimize the effects,
  • and to limit damage to man, the environment and property,
  • — implementing the measures necessary to protect man and the environment
  • from the effects of major accidents,
  • — communicating the necessary information to the public and to the
  • services or authorities concerned in the area,
  • — providing for the restoration and clean-up of the environment
  • following a major accident.
  • Emergency plans shall contain the information set out in Annex IV/IV
requirements eep 2
  • Seveso II/III :
  • Member States shall ensure that the public concerned is given early opportunity to give its opinion on external emergency plans when they are being established or substantially modified.
  • Member States shall ensure that internal and external emergency plans are reviewed, tested, and where necessary updated by the operators and designated authorities respectively at suitable intervals of no longer than three years. The review shall take into account changes occurring in the establishments concerned or within the emergency services concerned, new technical knowledge, and knowledge concerning the response to major accidents.
  • With regard to external emergency plans, Member States shall take into account the need to facilitate enhanced cooperation in civil protection assistance in major emergencies.

Minimum contents EEP according to ANNEX IV - SEVESO

Names or positions of persons authorised to set emergency procedures in

motion and of persons authorised to take charge of and coordinate off-site action;

(b) Arrangements for receiving early warning of incidents, and alert and call-out


(c) Arrangements for coordinating resources necessary to implement the external

emergency plan;

(d) Arrangements for providing assistance with on-site mitigatory action;

(e) Arrangements for off-site mitigatory action, including responses to major-accident

scenarios as set out in the safety report and considering possible domino effects,

including those having an impact on the environment;

(f) Arrangements for providing the public and any neighbouring establishments

or sites that fall outside the scope of this Directive in accordance with Article 9 with

specific information relating to the accident and the behaviour which should be adopted;

(g) Arrangements for the provision of information to the emergency services of other

Member States in the event of a major accident with possible transboundary


responsibilities specifics
  • The development of a an external emergency
  • plan will involve three main organisations:
    • The Competent Authority
    • The Local Authority
    • The Facility Operator

Risk Assessment and Emergency Planning

competent authority
Competent Authority
  • The Competent Authority will inform the Local Authority of the duty to produce an emergency plan
  • The Competent Authority can take such measures that are necessary to have the Facility Operator provide information for the emergency plan, if the Local Authority is having difficulty getting the required information

Risk Assessment and Emergency Planning

local authority
Local Authority
  • The Local Authority is responsible for developing the external emergency plan for any Seveso II facilities in its area
  • The plan is to be developed in liaison with the Facility Operator, the Competent Authority, the Emergency Services, the Health Authority and appropriate members of the public

Risk Assessment and Emergency Planning

facility operator
Facility Operator
  • Facility Operators are required to produce their own internal emergency plans
  • The Facility Operator is required to provide the Local Authority with necessary information about the facility, including the hazard identification and risk assessment, so that an emergency plan can be developed
authorised persons
Authorised Persons
  • A list of names and positions of persons authorised to set the plan in motion and of persons authorised to take charge of the emergency should be developed
  • The responding organisations should strive to work together as a team to maximise the effectiveness of the response
  • Arrangements should be in place for receiving early warning of incidents, and alert and call-out procedures
  • The plan should include details of how a warning will be received by the external emergency services and how the warning will be cascaded as necessary to the other external agencies involved in the response
coordinating resources
Coordinating Resources
  • Information should include:
  • Which organisations have a role and their responsibilities
  • How each organisation will be alerted and how they will respond
  • How the facility emergency response personnel and the external emergency services will recognise each other at the scene
coordinating resources continued
Coordinating Resources (Continued)
  • How the responding organisations and facility personnel will communicate and obtain/transmit information
  • Where the emergency services, the facility operator and other relevant agencies will meet off-site if necessary
  • How the emergency services will gain access to the facility or to any special equipment or resources that may be required in the response
on site mitigatory action
On-Site Mitigatory Action
  • Arrangements must be in place for providing assistance with on-site mitigatory action
  • On arrival on site, the external emergency services take over full responsibility for dealing with the response to the emergency
  • Details such as briefing of personnel, availability of special equipment and resources should be included
external mitigatory action
External Mitigatory Action
  • Arrangements for dealing with accidents, which have consequences outside the boundary of the facility should be in place, for example:
    • Mitigating the external effects of the accident
    • Sheltering or evacuating the public
    • Controlling traffic and maintaining essential service routes
    • Preventing people entering the affected area
information to the public
Information to the Public
  • The plan should include information on:
  • How the public in the vicinity of the establishment will be alerted in the event of an emergency (e.g. siren, telephone, radio)
  • How they will be told what to do
  • How they will be told that the danger has passed and they may return to their normal activities
  • Plan for media response
information to bordering states
Information to Bordering States
  • Arrangements should be in place for the provision of information to the emergency services of bordering states in the event of a major accident with possible transboundary consequences
  • This should only be required where the hazard identification and risk assessment shows a reasonable likelihood that there could be harmful consequences across borders of other states
review of emergency plan
Review of Emergency Plan
  • Emergency plans should be reviewed periodically, at a minimum every three years
  • The plan should also be tested periodically, at a minimum every three years
  • Any such review should take into account changes in the facility, the emergency services, and new technical knowledge or response to major accidents

Risk Assessment and Emergency Planning

structure of emergency planning
Structure of Emergency Planning

National Emergency Plan

concept of emergency planning continued

Risk Assessment

Regulations and Decree

Risk Reduction

External Emergency Plan

Concept of Emergency Planning (Continued)

Contents of an External Emergency Plan (example)

Scope of the plan

Extent of Planning

Implementation and use of the plan


Monitoring, notification and warning

Mobilisation of resources

Management and Administration

Protection, rescue and relief

Personal and mutual protection

List of terms and Abbreviations

Annexes – A - D


A- Action Plan for Bodies Implementing the Plan

B- Collection of Data necessary for Implementation

of the Plan

C- Training and Drill Programme

D- Instruction for Maintenance and Distribution

of the Plan

contents of an eep
Contents of an EEP
  • 1. Scope of the Plan
    • the major-accident scenarios
    • potential for knock-on/domino effects

(This information will be generated from the site risk assessment)

  • 2. Extent of Planning
    • facility
    • municipal/regional/state

(This will be dependent on the results from the site risk assessment)

3. Implementation and use of the Plan

Outline the concept for implementation of the EP in the event of major accidents for which the plan has been developed: Flowchart showing how the plan will be implemented.

! Key decision making

contents of an eep continued
Contents of an EEP (Continued)
  • 4. Resources
  • Outline necessary resources (personnel, facilities and funding) and the available funding. Necessary resources are generally defined by national legislation (minimum requirements).
  • The available resources are those available to the Local Authority.
  • 5. Monitoring, notification, and warning (1)
  • Outline the means of monitoring for major accidents and receiving early notification about major accidents. The EEP should include details of how a warning of a developing or actual major accident will be received by the external emergency services/local authority.
  • Outline the arrangements in place for promptly notifying and/or warning the following in the event of a major accident:
  • members of the public who may be affected by the accident;
  • external agencies (other municipal or state bodies responsible for activating the protection and rescue plans).


5. Monitoring, notification, and warning (2)

  • The EEP should include information on:
  • how the public in the vicinity of the establishment will be alerted in the event of an
  • accident
  • how they will be told what they should do
  • how they will be told that the danger is passed and they may return to their normal
  • activities
  • This will refer to the prior information that will have been supplied to those in the
  • vicinity of the establishment.
  • The public may be warned by siren, telephone, loud hailer or some other system.
  • This is for local agreement and should be recorded in the EEP.
  • Outline the procedures for the notification of other states in the event of a major
  • accident that may have cross-border consequences.
  • The EEP should include information on how the media will be used to transmit
  • information for immediate dissemination
contents of an eep continued1
Contents of an EEP (Continued)
  • 6. Mobilisation of resources
  • Outline the procedure for mobilising
  • and coordination of the required resources (personnel, equipment and funds).
  • Flowcharts may be useful for showing how resources will be mobilised.
  • 7. Management and administration
  • Outline the EEP management structure (role and responsibilities of team members)
  • Indicate positions of persons authorized/responsible
  • To activate the various elements of the EEP
  • To liaise with other bodies responsible for emergency plans (other municipalities or
  • state)

8. Protection. Rescue and relief

  • For foreseeable conditions or events, which could lead to a major accident,
  • provide a description of the actions which should be taken to control the conditions
  • or events and to limit their consequences.
  • Outline the protective measures in place, how protection actions will be
  • implemented and those responsible for implementation.
  • Outline the rescue and relief tasks and those responsible for implementing
  • these tasks. Arrangements should be put in place for dealing with the consequences
  • outside the boundary of the establishment, for example:
  • Mitigating the external effects of the accident;
  • Sheltering or evacuating members of the public;
  • Controlling traffic and maintaining essential emergency service routes; and
  • Preventing people entering the affected area.
  • Arrangements must be in place for providing assistance with on-site
  • mitigatory action.


  • Outline the instructions for an individual to prevent and mitigate the
  • consequences of a major accident on their health, life and property.
  • Indicate how these instructions will be effectively disseminated.
contents of an eep continued2
Contents of an EEP (Continued)
  • Annexes:
  • Action plan for bodies implementing the plan
  • Include implementing bodies, their tasks, methods of implementation and determine the necessary material, financial and other resources for implementation of their tasks.
  • B. Relevant data for implementing the plan

Include all relevant data such as names, positions, role in EEP, telephone numbers, faxes

C. Training and drill programme

Outline the staff training programme for tasks to be undertaken in the event of a major accident and the joint training programmes with the establishment. (see further guidance on emergency training and emergency response testing and drills)

D. Maintenance and distribution of the plan (instructions to be provided)

contents of an eep iep continued
Contents of an EEP/IEP (Continued)
  • Content items are the same
  • External agencies are involved
  • The public is involved
external emergency control centre eecc
External Emergency Control Centre (EECC)
  • It may be possible to locate the EECC in the same area as the on-site Emergency Control Centre (ECC), however, it may need to be a safe distance from the facility
  • The EECC Team , once established, takes over the management of the off-site aspects of the response from the site ECC, including the media liaison role
eecc continued
EECC (Continued)
  • The recommended equipment for the EECC is similar to that of the EEC detailed in an earlier presentation, in addition to the following:
    • Maps showing the location of overhead power lines or other obstructions that may restrict access to the facility
    • Roads maps of the surrounding area
    • A traffic management plan

Liasing Internal/ External Emergency Services

  • The external emergency services are an essential source of help and expertise
  • in the event of an emergency. It is therefore important to ensure they are familiar with:
  • the layout of the site,
  • the nature of the work carried out,
  • chemicals stored on site, etc.,
  • the nature of the potential major-accident hazards at the site,
  • the IEP.
  • The facility operator should invite the external emergency services onto the
  • establishment to ascertain the information required by the external emergency
  • services and to ensure they are familiar with the layout of the site.
  • There are two stages when information should be given to the
  • external emergency services/local authorities:
  • when preparing, developing and practicing the IEP (emergency planning);
  • in the event of an accident

Liaison During Emergency Planning

  • The following information should typically be given to the external emergency
  • services/local authorities during the planning stage:
  • Information necessary to prepare the External Emergency Plan (EEP) as
  • appropriate, i.e. if an external plan is required;
  • An up-to-date copy of all relevant drawings showing location of access roads,
  • emergency exits, fire fighting equipment, hydrants, warehouses, chemical storage
  • areas, gas cylinders and any other information requested by the external
  • emergency services deemed necessary in the event of an emergency.
  • This may all be included in the IEP;
  • An up-to-date summary of all hazardous materials present on the site and
  • the actions to be taken in the event of an emergency.
  • This may all be included in the IEP;
  • Plant shutdown procedure. This may be included in the IEP.

Liaison In The Event Of An Accident

  • When the emergency services arrive at the facility, the following information
  • should be provided by the MCT:
  • Location and details of the accident, including personnel injured or missing,
  • chemicals involved, wind speed, etc.;
  • Summary of any actions completed by MCT and FCT;
  • Any access restrictions;
  • Any other necessary information regarding the accident including the effect
  • on adjacent facilities.
  • The external emergency services will liaise with the MCT/FCT and ascertain
  • any additional information as required.
  • Article 13 (1), of Seveso II /Article 14 2(a) of Seveso III requires that Member States shall ensure that information on safety measures and on the requisite behaviour in the event of an accident is supplied, without having to request it, to persons liable to be affected by a major-accident originating in an establishment covered by Article 9/10(top tier).
general continued
General (Continued)
  • The maximum period between repetition of the information to the public shall, in any case, be no longer than five years.
minimum public information requirements
Minimum Public Information Requirements
  • This is outlined in Annex V/Vof the SevesoII/III
  • directive:
  • (1) Name of operator and address of the establishment.
  • (2) Identification, by position held, of the person giving the information.
minimum public information requirements continued
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (3) Confirmation that the establishment is subject to the regulations and/or administrative provisions of the Seveso II directive and that the notification referred
  • to in Article 6 (3), or the safety report referred to in Article 9 (1) has been submitted to the competent authority.
  • (4) An explanation in simple terms of the activity or activities at the establishment.
minimum public information requirements continued1
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (5) The common names, in the case of dangerous substances covered by Part 2 of Annex I, the generic names or the general danger classification of the substances and preparations involved at the establishment which would give rise to a major-accident, with an indication of their principal dangerous characteristics.
minimum public information requirements continued2
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (6) General information relating to the nature of the major-accident hazards, including their potential effects on the population and the environment.
  • Adequate information on how the population concerned will be warned and kept informed in the event of a major-accident
minimum public information requirements continued3
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (8) Adequate information on the actions the population should take, and on the behaviour they should adopt, in the event of a major-accident. (or indication where
  • information can be accessed electronically
  • - Seveso III)
  • (9) Confirmation that the operator is required to make adequate arrangements on site, in particular liason with the emergency services, to deal with major- accidents and to minimise their effects.
minimum public information requirements continued4
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (10) A reference to the external emergency plan drawn up to cope with any off-site effects from an accident. This should include advice to cooperate with any instructions or requests from the emergency services at the time of an accident.
minimum public information requirements continued5
Minimum Public Information Requirements (Continued)
  • (11) Details of where further relevant information can be obtained, subject to the requirements of confidentiality laid down in national legislation.
general principles
General Principles
  • Many plants have taken the opportunity, that with their public information duties under Seveso, to use the opportunity to positively influence the public image of the enterprise and to raise the trust in the plant safety measures.
  • The aim is to create a consciousness in the population for the risks in their surroundings and prepare them for the appropriate response in the event of an accident.
information goals
Information Goals
  • The information should be developed such that:
  • The understanding of the type of facility is promoted.
  • The trust in the risk consciousness and precautionary measures of the operator is maintained or strengthened and the anxiety of accidents is maintained as low as possible.
  • The trust in the control and actions of the authorities is maintained or strengthened.
transparency and understanding
Transparency and Understanding
  • It is necessary to communicate the hazards in an open and concrete fashion, and to represent the accident scenarios in a transparent and understandable manner.
  • A restrictive approach will quickly lead to a loss in public trust, which is difficult to regain.
  • The consultation with interested neighbouring persons and groups can increase public acceptance.
areas with multiple seveso sites
Areas with Multiple Seveso Sites
  • Where the area contains a number of Seveso sites, then it is allowed under the legislation to generate a combined brochure instead of a row of individual information packs.
target groups
Target Groups



A comparativley large heterogenous

General information according to Annex V

composite group with different interests

of Seveso II.

and expectations.



Persons, who could be resident in

Special information according to Annex V,

normal situations and in unfavourable

extensive recommendations for response in

circumstances in the hazardous zone.

event of an accident.



Individuals, who have the wish to

Additional material to distinctive questions

contact the plant operator for

– as far as it does not impact business


confidentiality (at the same time as trust

building measures).

general recommendations
General Recommendations
  • Do not limit the addressed public to too small a group.
  • To inform in a comprehensive rather than a limited fashion.
  • Address cultural differences, e.g. non-native speakers.
general shortcomings
  • Often point 5 (description of hazardous material) and point 6 (type of hazard and effects) are not satisfactorlydocumentated.
  • Put yourself in the position of the affected public!
  • - Which concrete hazards for myself or the environment arise from the materials, and how are they released?
general shortcomings continued
General SHORTCOMINGS (Continued)
  • - Which accident scenario is to be feared the worst?
  • - What happens under which conditions at
  • different locations?
good example of information on materials



Good Example of Information on Materials

Material and Hazard Symbols

* Does not however fall under Seveso II.

With release or consideration of release or occurence of one of these chemicals, immediately at the

site boundary measurements will be completed, in order to assess and inform at the earliest opportunity

over actual or threatening danger.

bad example of information on materials
Bad Example of Information on Materials
  • “Under consideration of strict safety regulations we work with gases, liquids and solid materials, which are partly combustible, flammable, toxic, corrosive, carcinogenic, radioactive or hazardous to water and solid materials, which can form potentially explosive atmospheres as air/dust mixtures. With appropriate handling no danger arises however from these materials……”

Risk Assessment and Emergency Planning

information on affected areas
Information on Affected Areas
  • Frequently the description of type and extent of the area possibly affected by the pollutant is described very abstractly. The use of visual representation is recommended, e.g. effective radii on a section of a city map, despite all scientific uncertainty over critical parameters.
information on affected areas1
Information on Affected Areas
  • A good example would be the a section of a city map with a hazardous radius and the following text:
  • “Hazardous material will not under normal conditions be found beyond the site boundary. Also in the case of an accident at a distance of more than 1,500 m from the site boundary no harmful effects are to be feared.”
realistic representation
Realistic Representation
  • Without exception the playing down of risks
  • should be avoided. Most suited are phrases,
  • which represent to the reader the relationship
  • between unavoidable risk and precautionary
  • measures, and in the ideal case tied to everyday
  • experience.
realistic representation continued
Realistic Representation (Continued)
  • A good example would be:
  • “If it should despite the safety measures in place
  • come to a release of material, the liquified gas
  • will, on the basis of its heavy gas properties,
  • spread out over the ground. At low temperatures
  • the heavy gas appears like flowing water; it will
  • collect on the basis of its heavy density in dips
  • and depressions in the ground. Liquified gas is
  • combustible and as an air/gas mixture explosive.
  • With large fires and strong explosions, damage
  • to houses or injury to people is possible.”
large plants
Large Plants
  • In large sites, that have a multitude of
  • materials and preparations, and operate
  • very complex plants, simplification is
  • necessary in order not to overload the
  • reader with details. Here as in other
  • contexts it is advisable to have additional
  • material available.
large plants continued
Large Plants (Continued)
  • This material, such as information on
  • material databanks, excerpts from safety
  • analysis, material on the plant emergency response capabilities etc, should be
  • available on request for ‘interested parties’. Consideration should also be given to
  • ‘open door’ days, availability for personal discussion, information on competent
  • parties for dealing with the authorities,
  • emission data for normal operation, etc.
response requirements
Response Requirements
  • These should be summarised in the emergency leaflet.
  • Questions, for which the affected public will require answers, run like:
    • How will I be notified?
    • What must I do first of all?
    • What do I do next?
    • Can I do something else?
    • What should I not do in any case?
response requirements continued
Response Requirements(Continued)
  • Examine the plausibility of the information and avoide contradictions, e.g. the information to observe instructions by loud speaker when on the other side it is required to have windows and doors maintained shut.
  • Use simple clear text!!
  • Recommend a safe location for storing the leaflet!!

The establishment ButanPlind.d. is situated in

the industrial zone Šiška in northern part of Ljubljana

Vertical LPG Storage Vessels (250m3)

Railway Car unloading Station

Cylinder Filling Station

View of Site from Top of Vertical Storage Vessels


Type of Accident Covered by the

  • External Emergency Plan

The plan considers release of 90m3 of LPG (contents of a larger railway car).

An uncontrolled release of LPG can lead to various events which are covered by this plan.


Summary of the worst case results of the

modelling exercise (1)

Summary of Results for 90 m3 Car Release


Overpressure damage effects

  • The overpressures required to directly injure humans are significantly higher
  • than those required to damage buildings. Injuries resulting from secondary
  • impacts, such as building damage/collapse or flying debris, are more likely to
  • occur and therefore the distances to the following overpressures are usually
  • determined for each scenario modelled:
  • 0.207 bar Steel frame building distorted and pulled away from
  • foundations; Rupture of storage tanks. Serious damage to
  • buildings and equipment.
  • 0.138 bar Partial collapse of walls and roofs of houses.
  • 0.021 bar “Safe distance” – 95% probability of no serious damage
  • beyond this point; 10% of glass windows broken.

Heat Radiation Effects

  • 37.5 kW/m2 Sufficient to cause damage to process equipment
  • 12.5 kW/m2Minimum energy required for piloted ignition of wood,
  • melting plastic tubing, etc
  • 4.5 kW/m2Sufficient to cause pain to personnel if unable to reach
  • cover within 20 seconds, however, blistering of skin
  • (first degree burns) is unlikely

Area of implementation of protective measures and tasks,

rescue and help due to consequences of explosion at Butanplin


Area of implementation of protective measures and tasks,

rescue and help due to heat radiation in the event of a fire at Butanplin









Classification of the incident





Taking control over the event

Activation of ER units


Execution of Protection and Rescue Plans



Taking control over the accident


In terms of risk assessment,

considering the worst credible

scenarioat Butanplin, it is expected

in the case of an accident at Butanplin

that events would lead to the type of

accident which requires the involvement

of external rescue and response teams

(ZRP MOL) and consequently activation

of this plan.

The classification of the initial

event/incident as either an major incident

or minor incident is the responsibility of



Butanplin communicates and notifies

  • the Regional centre for communication
  • Ljubljana (ReCOLj), which
  • further communicates .
  • The message contains information on:
  • Possibility of development into
  • major accident or occurrence of
  • major accident at Butanplin,
  • Possible development of the event.

Implementation of protection,

  • rescue and help at accident

Assuring the basic conditions for life

  • The basic conditions for life are assured by:
  • Assuring the use of the roads for transportation and removal of the effects of an
  • explosion and/or fire on public areas owned by the MOL,
  • Providing provisional accommodation to the affected inhabitants in a premises
  • assigned by the Department for pre-school upbringing, education and sport,
  • Providing a supply of food to the affected inhabitants, and
  • Providing the premises for the activities of Red Cross, Caritas and Centre
  • for social work.

Safety measures in implementing the ZRP (=EEP)

  • In order to assure safety in the implementation of the ZRP, the police enforce a full ban of all traffic at all entry points to the endangered area at a distance of 600 m from Butanplin.
  • Depending on the development of the events and on the decision of the Commander of CZ MOL, the police enforce a full ban of all traffic also on the highway ringroad around Ljubljana between the exit/entry points to the Celovška and Dunajska road.
  • The police allow entry to the endangered area to the forces of ZRP only.
  • The police determine the number of missing persons and maintain this list.

Personal and mutual protection

  • Butanplin periodically informs the companies and inhabitants in the
  • endangered area, regarding the potential risk, preventive measures, measures
  • for mitigation of consequences and correct behaviour in the event of an accident.
  • The information is provided every three years and communicated using
  • written information, public hearings and
  • presentations at the premises of endangered district communities.
  • In the event of an accident, the Commander of CZ MOL decides on
  • communication of information to the public using electronic media.
  • In the event of significant potential for an accident, firstly the audible warning
  • siren is sounded, immediately after that, information through electronic media
  • is published via ReCOLj.



of 9 December 1996 on the control of major-accident hazards involving

dangerous substances(OJ L 10, 14.1.1997, p. 13) – consolidated version


COUNCIL of 4 July 2012

on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances,

amending and subsequently repealing Council Directive 96/82/EC

Planning for Emergencies Involving Dangerous Substances for Slovenia/Romania.

Final Reports. Contract no: SL/RO-0081.0011.01. 28 February 2002/11 February 2002.

I.van der Putte: Regional Environment Accession Project (REAP).

Nethconsult/BKH Consulting Engineers/RPS.

Subcontractors: AEA Technology, URS/Dames & Moore, EPCE, Project Management Group,

REC Hungary