Sexual minorities
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The concept of homosexuality during the 19th century - Group 1. Sexual Minorities. 1. The Development in Europe. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs 1825-1895 Kraft-Ebbing’s Psychopathia Sexualis 1892 Magnus Hirschfeld’s Scientific Humanitarian Committe 1897-1933

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Sexual Minorities

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Sexual minorities

The concept of homosexuality

during the 19th century

- Group 1

Sexual Minorities

1


The development in europe

The Development in Europe

  • Karl Heinrich Ulrichs 1825-1895

  • Kraft-Ebbing’s Psychopathia Sexualis 1892

  • Magnus Hirschfeld’s Scientific Humanitarian Committe

    1897-1933

  • Elisar von Kupffer wanted to broaden the public perspective of homosexuality

2


Psychology and criminology

Psychology and Criminology

  • Congenital

  • A symptom of ”other” psychopathic behavior

  • Degeneracy theory 1870s and 1980s

  • “The sodomite had been a temporary aberration; the homosexual was now a species” - Foucault

  • 1973 DSM-II no longer a diagnosis

3


Germany

Germany

  • The emancipation movement 1890-1934

  • Paragraph 175

  • Nazi Germany 1929-1945

4


Great britain

Great Britain

  • 1836 The last execution

  • 1921 Attempt to criminalize

    lesbianism

  • 1895 Oscar Wilde

  • “The Well of loneliness”

    by Radclyffe-Hall

5


Decriminalization

Decriminalization

  • 1791 France (first West European country)

  • 1811 Netherlands

  • 1944 Sweden

  • 1967 England and Wales

  • 1968 East Germany

  • 1969 West Germany

6


The american development

The American development

7


Pre civil war

Pre-Civil War

  • Rural towns

  • Small population

  • Importance of the Church

  • Homosexuality = sin

8


Criminalization

Criminalization

  • Punishable by death

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • Repeal

9


First american subculture

First american subculture

10


Decriminalization1

Decriminalization

  • Illinois 1961

  • […]

  • Alabama, Kansas, the south… 2003

  • Don’t ask, don’t tell

11


Rictor norton

Rictor Norton

  • Rictor Norton was born in 1945 in New York

  • He wrote his thesis on homosexual themes in English renaissance literature and several books focusing on the LGBT issues

  • He is a supporter of the essentalism theory

12


The essentialism homosexual theory

The essentialism homosexual theory

  • This theory supports that sexual orientation reflects a reality that can’t be changed

  • This theory goes against the social construction of sexual orientation

  • The sexual orientation of a person is the essence of who the person really is

  • To summarize, the sexual orientation is pre-determined and can’t be a choice

13


The myth of the modern homosexual queer history and the search for cultural unity

The Myth of the modern homosexual: queer history and the search for cultural unity

  • Norton tries to prove that homosexuality was not invented in the modern West time

  • Norton supports the autonomy of homosexual culture and identities

  • Norton wants to show that homosexuals played a part in history and that it was revised to be more conform with a heterosexual vision

14


Jonathan ned katz

Jonathan Ned Katz

  • Born in 1938

  • American historian specialized on human sexuality

  • Same-sex attractions and changes in the social organisation of sexuality over time.

  • Constructivism theory: the categories with which we describe and define human sexuality are historically and culturally specific = “constructions”


The invention of heterosexuality 1995

« The Invention of Heterosexuality  » (1995)

  • Translated and published in Brazil, Italy, France, Spain.

  • Cited by U.S. Supreme Court in majority opinion in Lawrence v. Texas, June 2003.

  • JNK seeks to prove «  that “heterosexuality” as we conceive of it today is not a fixed, absolute state, and that the fundamental binary of homo vs. hetero, upon which our current culture so heavily relies, is similarly arbitrary.  »


Sexual minorities

  • Demonstrates that sexuality is constructed throughout history.

  • Critic of scholars and activists, working on the history of the homosexuality => marginalization of gay people

  • « We also need works that question the idea of a sex margin and sex center » (JNK)


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