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Welcome. Sixth Lecture for ITEC 1010 3.0 A Professor G.E. Denzel. Agenda. Finish material relevant to Chapter 4 Programming languages Begin discussion of Chapter 5 on data storage and organization. Object Oriented Languages (1). Object-oriented languages (OOL)

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welcome

Welcome

Sixth Lecture for ITEC 1010 3.0 A

Professor G.E. Denzel

agenda
Agenda
  • Finish material relevant to Chapter 4
    • Programming languages
  • Begin discussion of Chapter 5 on data storage and organization
object oriented languages 1
Object Oriented Languages (1)
  • Object-oriented languages (OOL)
      • Languages that allow interaction of programming objects, including data elements and the actions that will be performed on them
      • Note: OOP = object-oriented programming
  • Encapsulation
      • The process of grouping items into an object
  • Polymorphism
      • A process allowing the programmer to develop one routine or set of activities that will operate on multiple objects
object oriented languages 2
Object Oriented Languages (2)
  • Inheritance
      • Property used to describe objects in a group of objects taking on characteristics of other objects in the same group or class of objects
  • Reusable code
      • The instruction code within an object that can be reused in different programs for a variety of applications
  • Examples
      • Smalltalk, C++, Java
history of object orientation
History of Object Orientation
  • Object-oriented approaches began with development of Simula in the 1960’s
  • In 1970, Smalltalk was developed
  • Allowed for easier development of graphical user interfaces (with menus, buttons, windows as objects)
  • More recently led to other object-oriented languages - C++, Java
  • Also led to object-oriented databases
slide7

Object Oriented Terms

  • Class Diagram
  • A graphical model that shows all the classes of objects in the system
  • For every class (grouping of related objects) there may be specialized subclasses
  • Sublcasses “inherit” properties of classes above them

Car

- 4 wheels

-engine

CLASS

IS A

Family Car

- 4 doors

SUBCLASS

Sports Car

- 2 doors

INSTANCE

Ferarri

Lambargini

visual programming languages
Visual Programming Languages
  • Visual programming languages…
    • Languages that use a mouse, icons, or symbols on the screen and pull-down menus to develop programs
    • Examples
      • Visual Basic
      • Visual C++
      • PC COBOL
fifth generation languages
Fifth-Generation Languages
  • 5th generation languages…
    • Combines rule-based code generation, component management, visual programming techniques, and reuse management
    • Knowledge-based management
      • An approach to the development of computer programs in which you do not tell a computer how to do a job, but what you want it to do
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss traditional data file organization and its problems
  • Explain how a database approach overcomes the problems associated with a traditional file environment, and discuss the advantages of the database approach
  • Describe how the three most common data models organize data, and the advantages and disadvantages of each model
  • Describe how a multidimensional data model organizes data
learning objectives cont d
Learning Objectives(cont’d)
  • Distinguish between a data warehouse and a data mart
  • Discuss the similarities and difference between data mining and text mining
terminology
Terminology
  • Database
      • A collection of integrated and related files
  • File
      • A collection of related records
  • Record
      • A collection of related fields
  • Field
      • A group of characters
  • Character
      • Basic building block of information, represented by a byte
slide16

Hierarchy of data

Example

Database

Class list file

(Project database)

Department file

Tuition file

Files

209000111 Johns Francine ITEC SP

208000123 Buckley Bill ITEC O

993045678 Fiske Steven ITMA H

(Class list file)

Records

(Record containing CYIN, last name, first name, Major

993045678 Fiske Steven ITMA H

Fields

(Last name field)

Fiske

Characters(bytes)

1000100

(Letter ‘F’ in ASCII)

data entities attributes and keys
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys
  • Entity
      • A generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data are collected, stored, and maintained
      • E.g., Customer, Employee
  • Attribute
      • A characteristic of an entity; something the entity is identified by
      • E.g., Customer name, Employee name
  • Keys
      • A field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record
      • E.g, A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record
keys and attributes
Keys and Attributes

Entities(records)

Primary Key field

Attributes (fields)

the traditional approach
The Traditional Approach
  • The traditional approach…
    • Separate files are created and stored for each application program

Schematic

slide20

Application

programs

Data

Files

Users

Payroll

Reports

Payrollprograms

Invoicing

Reports

Invoicingprograms

Inventorycontrol

Inventorycontrolprograms

Reports

Managementinquiries

Reports

Managementinquiriesprograms

traditional file environment continued
Traditional File Environment (continued …)
  • Problems with the file approach
    • data redundancy - the same piece of information could be duplicated in several places
    • data inconsistency - the various copies of the data no longer agree
    • data isolation - difficulty in accessing data from different applications
    • security - new applications may be added to the system on an ad hoc basis
    • data integrity not assured - data values must often meet integrity constraints
    • application/data dependence - the applications and data in computer systems should be independent
database approach
Database Approach
  • The database approach…
    • A pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs
    • Rather than having separate data files, each application uses a collection of data that is either joined or related in the database

Schematic

database the modern approach
Database : The Modern Approach

Academic Info.

Team Data

Employee Data

Tuition Data

Financial Aid

Registrar Office

Class Programs

Student Data

Course Data

Course Data

Registration Data

Database

Management

System

Accounting Dept.

Accounts Programs

Athletics Dept.

Sports Programs

  • Database Management System
    • provides access to all the data
    • Example : University administration
slide24

Payroll

program

Reports

Payroll data

Inventorydata

Invoicing

Data

Otherdata

Inventory

program

Reports

Database

management

system

Invoicing

program

Reports

Other

programs

Reports

Database

Interface

Applications programs

Users

advantages
Advantages
  • Improved strategic use of corporate data
  • Reduced data redundancy
  • Improved data integrity
  • Easier modification and updating
  • Data and program independence
  • Better access to data and information
  • Standardization of data access
  • A framework for program development
  • Better overall protection of the data
  • Shared data and information resources
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Relatively high cost of purchasing and operating a DBMS in a mainframe operating environment
  • Increased cost of specialized staff
  • Increased vulnerability
data modeling and database models
Data Modeling and Database Models
  • Data model
    • A map or diagram of entities and their relationships
  • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams
    • A data model that uses basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data
slide29

Last name

Colour

Attributes

Entities

Order

First

name

Name

Customer

Product

1

N

1:N one-to-many

relationship

Identificationnumber

Identificationnumber

hierarchical database model
Hierarchical Database Model
  • Hierarchical database model
    • A data model in which data are organized in a top-down, or inverted tree structure

Schematic

slide31

Project 1

Department A

Department B

Department C

Employee

1

Employee

2

Employee

3

Employee

4

Employee

5

Employee

6

network data model
Network Data Model
  • Network data model
      • An expansion of the hierarchical database model with an owner-member relationship in which a member may have many owners

Project 1

Project 2

Department A

Department B

Department C

relational data model
Relational Data Model
  • Relational data model
    • All data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, that are the logical equivalent of files

Schematic

slide34

Data Table 2: Department Table

Data Table 1: Project Table

Data Table 3: Manager Table

relational database terminology
Relational Database Terminology
  • Selecting
    • Data manipulation that eliminates rows according to certain criteria
  • Projecting
    • Data manipulation that eliminates columns in a table
  • Joining
    • Data manipulation that combines two or more tables
  • Linked
    • Related tables in a relational database together
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