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Welcome. Sixth Lecture for ITEC 1010 3.0 A Professor G.E. Denzel. Agenda. Finish material relevant to Chapter 4 Programming languages Begin discussion of Chapter 5 on data storage and organization. Object Oriented Languages (1). Object-oriented languages (OOL)

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Welcome

Welcome

Sixth Lecture for ITEC 1010 3.0 A

Professor G.E. Denzel


Agenda

Agenda

  • Finish material relevant to Chapter 4

    • Programming languages

  • Begin discussion of Chapter 5 on data storage and organization


Object oriented languages 1

Object Oriented Languages (1)

  • Object-oriented languages (OOL)

    • Languages that allow interaction of programming objects, including data elements and the actions that will be performed on them

    • Note: OOP = object-oriented programming

  • Encapsulation

    • The process of grouping items into an object

  • Polymorphism

    • A process allowing the programmer to develop one routine or set of activities that will operate on multiple objects


  • Object oriented languages 2

    Object Oriented Languages (2)

    • Inheritance

      • Property used to describe objects in a group of objects taking on characteristics of other objects in the same group or class of objects

  • Reusable code

    • The instruction code within an object that can be reused in different programs for a variety of applications

  • Examples

    • Smalltalk, C++, Java


  • History of object orientation

    History of Object Orientation

    • Object-oriented approaches began with development of Simula in the 1960’s

    • In 1970, Smalltalk was developed

    • Allowed for easier development of graphical user interfaces (with menus, buttons, windows as objects)

    • More recently led to other object-oriented languages - C++, Java

    • Also led to object-oriented databases


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    Object Oriented Terms

    • Class Diagram

    • A graphical model that shows all the classes of objects in the system

    • For every class (grouping of related objects) there may be specialized subclasses

    • Sublcasses “inherit” properties of classes above them

    Car

    - 4 wheels

    -engine

    CLASS

    IS A

    Family Car

    - 4 doors

    SUBCLASS

    Sports Car

    - 2 doors

    INSTANCE

    Ferarri

    Lambargini


    Visual programming languages

    Visual Programming Languages

    • Visual programming languages…

      • Languages that use a mouse, icons, or symbols on the screen and pull-down menus to develop programs

      • Examples

        • Visual Basic

        • Visual C++

        • PC COBOL


    Fifth generation languages

    Fifth-Generation Languages

    • 5th generation languages…

      • Combines rule-based code generation, component management, visual programming techniques, and reuse management

      • Knowledge-based management

        • An approach to the development of computer programs in which you do not tell a computer how to do a job, but what you want it to do


    Chapter 5 managing organizational data and information

    CHAPTER 5MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL DATA AND INFORMATION


    Learning objectives

    Learning Objectives

    • Discuss traditional data file organization and its problems

    • Explain how a database approach overcomes the problems associated with a traditional file environment, and discuss the advantages of the database approach

    • Describe how the three most common data models organize data, and the advantages and disadvantages of each model

    • Describe how a multidimensional data model organizes data


    Learning objectives cont d

    Learning Objectives(cont’d)

    • Distinguish between a data warehouse and a data mart

    • Discuss the similarities and difference between data mining and text mining


    Terminology

    Terminology

    • Database

      • A collection of integrated and related files

  • File

    • A collection of related records

  • Record

    • A collection of related fields

  • Field

    • A group of characters

  • Character

    • Basic building block of information, represented by a byte


  • Hierarchy of data

    Hierarchy of Data

    Schematic


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    Hierarchy of data

    Example

    Database

    Class list file

    (Project database)

    Department file

    Tuition file

    Files

    209000111 Johns Francine ITEC SP

    208000123 Buckley Bill ITEC O

    993045678 Fiske Steven ITMA H

    (Class list file)

    Records

    (Record containing CYIN, last name, first name, Major

    993045678 Fiske Steven ITMA H

    Fields

    (Last name field)

    Fiske

    Characters(bytes)

    1000100

    (Letter ‘F’ in ASCII)


    Data entities attributes and keys

    Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys

    • Entity

      • A generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data are collected, stored, and maintained

      • E.g., Customer, Employee

  • Attribute

    • A characteristic of an entity; something the entity is identified by

    • E.g., Customer name, Employee name

  • Keys

    • A field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record

    • E.g, A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record


  • Keys and attributes

    Keys and Attributes

    Entities(records)

    Primary Key field

    Attributes (fields)


    The traditional approach

    The Traditional Approach

    • The traditional approach…

      • Separate files are created and stored for each application program

    Schematic


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    Application

    programs

    Data

    Files

    Users

    Payroll

    Reports

    Payrollprograms

    Invoicing

    Reports

    Invoicingprograms

    Inventorycontrol

    Inventorycontrolprograms

    Reports

    Managementinquiries

    Reports

    Managementinquiriesprograms


    Traditional file environment continued

    Traditional File Environment (continued …)

    • Problems with the file approach

      • data redundancy - the same piece of information could be duplicated in several places

      • data inconsistency - the various copies of the data no longer agree

      • data isolation - difficulty in accessing data from different applications

      • security - new applications may be added to the system on an ad hoc basis

      • data integrity not assured - data values must often meet integrity constraints

      • application/data dependence - the applications and data in computer systems should be independent


    Database approach

    Database Approach

    • The database approach…

      • A pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs

      • Rather than having separate data files, each application uses a collection of data that is either joined or related in the database

    Schematic


    Database the modern approach

    Database : The Modern Approach

    Academic Info.

    Team Data

    Employee Data

    Tuition Data

    Financial Aid

    Registrar Office

    Class Programs

    Student Data

    Course Data

    Course Data

    Registration Data

    Database

    Management

    System

    Accounting Dept.

    Accounts Programs

    Athletics Dept.

    Sports Programs

    • Database Management System

      • provides access to all the data

      • Example : University administration


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    Payroll

    program

    Reports

    Payroll data

    Inventorydata

    Invoicing

    Data

    Otherdata

    Inventory

    program

    Reports

    Database

    management

    system

    Invoicing

    program

    Reports

    Other

    programs

    Reports

    Database

    Interface

    Applications programs

    Users


    Advantages

    Advantages

    • Improved strategic use of corporate data

    • Reduced data redundancy

    • Improved data integrity

    • Easier modification and updating

    • Data and program independence

    • Better access to data and information

    • Standardization of data access

    • A framework for program development

    • Better overall protection of the data

    • Shared data and information resources


    Disadvantages

    Disadvantages

    • Relatively high cost of purchasing and operating a DBMS in a mainframe operating environment

    • Increased cost of specialized staff

    • Increased vulnerability


    Data modeling and database models

    Data Modeling and Database Models

    • Data model

      • A map or diagram of entities and their relationships

    • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams

      • A data model that uses basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data


    Example entity relationship er diagram for a customer ordering database

    Example:Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram for a Customer Ordering Database

    Schematic


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    Last name

    Colour

    Attributes

    Entities

    Order

    First

    name

    Name

    Customer

    Product

    1

    N

    1:N one-to-many

    relationship

    Identificationnumber

    Identificationnumber


    Hierarchical database model

    Hierarchical Database Model

    • Hierarchical database model

      • A data model in which data are organized in a top-down, or inverted tree structure

    Schematic


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    Project 1

    Department A

    Department B

    Department C

    Employee

    1

    Employee

    2

    Employee

    3

    Employee

    4

    Employee

    5

    Employee

    6


    Network data model

    Network Data Model

    • Network data model

      • An expansion of the hierarchical database model with an owner-member relationship in which a member may have many owners

    Project 1

    Project 2

    Department A

    Department B

    Department C


    Relational data model

    Relational Data Model

    • Relational data model

      • All data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, that are the logical equivalent of files

    Schematic


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    Data Table 2: Department Table

    Data Table 1: Project Table

    Data Table 3: Manager Table


    Relational database terminology

    Relational Database Terminology

    • Selecting

      • Data manipulation that eliminates rows according to certain criteria

    • Projecting

      • Data manipulation that eliminates columns in a table

    • Joining

      • Data manipulation that combines two or more tables

    • Linked

      • Related tables in a relational database together


    Linking data tables to answer an inquiry

    Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry

    Schematic


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