Expansion Planning for the Smart Grid Russell Bent Los Alamos National Laboratory LAUR 1105574 Joint work with G. Loren Toole, Alan Berscheid, and W. Brent Daniel. SAMSI Scientific Problems for the Smart Grid Workshop 2011. Outline.
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Expansion Planning for the Smart Grid
Russell Bent
Los Alamos National Laboratory
LAUR 1105574
SAMSI Scientific Problems for the Smart Grid Workshop 2011
LANL Project: Optimization & Control Theory for Smart Grids
line switching
30% 2030
Network optimization
grid planning
distance to failure
queuing of PHEV
grid stability
reactive control
grid control
demand response
voltage collapse
cascades
http://cnls.lanl.gov/~chertkov/SmarterGrids/
M. Chertkov
optimization & control theory
E. BenNaim
statistics
statistical physics
R. Gupta
J. Johnson
S. Kudekar
information theory
Tdivision
R. Pfitzner
N. Sinitsyn
graph theory & algorithms
P. Sulc
K. Turitsyn
network analysis
L. Zdeborova
MPA
operation research
S. Backhaus
R. Bent
rare events analysis
F. Pan
plus
L. Toole
power engineering
Ddivision
M. Hinrichs
D. Izraelevitz
energy hardware
A. Giani
M. Anghel
energy planning & policy
CCS
http:/cnls.lanl.gov/~chertkov/SmarterGrids/
N. Santhi
LANL Project: Optimization & Control Theory for Smart Grids
line switching
30% 2030
Network optimization
grid planning
distance to failure
Focus of this talk: How should “smart grids” be designed or planned?
queuing of PHEV
grid stability
reactive control
grid control
demand response
voltage collapse
cascades
http://cnls.lanl.gov/~chertkov/SmarterGrids/
Traditional Expansion Planning
Internal Nodes (buses)
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Power Consumers (loads)

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Power Generators
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Traditional Expansion Planning
Internal Nodes (buses)
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Power Consumers (loads)

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Power Generators
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Upgrade (transmission lines, shunt compensation, renewable generators) an electric power system to accommodate changes in demand and meet renewable generation goals
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Smart Grid Impacts to Planning
Operations can impact how systems are expanded.
Expansion Planning Optimization Model
Pi = ∑k=1..n ViVk(cikgikcos(ΘiΘk) + cikbiksin(ΘiΘk))
Qi = ∑k=1..n ViVk(cikgiksin(ΘiΘk) + cikbikcos(ΘiΘk))
Pi = Real power of bus iQi = Reactive power of bus i
Vi = Voltage of bus iΘi= phase angle of bus i
gik = conductance between i,k bik = susceptance between i,k
cik= number of circuits between i,k
Challenges
Reduced Expansion Planning Optimization Model
Pi = ∑k=1..nbik (ΘiΘk)
Pi = ∑k=1..nbikcik(ΘiΘk)
Revisit the more complex models to better plan for smart grid, operations, renewables, etc.
Algorithm Intuition: Simulation Optimization
Expansion Decisions
Optimization
Simulation
Power flow behavior
Example:
Add wind generator to bus 1
Do not add wind generator to bus 1
Simulation…
Example:
Add wind generator to bus 1
Do not add wind generator to bus 1
Add wind generator to bus 1
Add 1 circuit to corridor 3
Add wind generator to bus 9
Discrepancy Bounded Local Search – DBLS (Approach 1)
Hybridize the two approaches
Constructive heuristic is used as the branching heuristic
Still computationally expensive …
Discrepancy Bounded Local Search – DBLS (Approach 1)
1 Discrepancy
Randomized Constructive Heuristic – RCH (Approach 2)
Constructive Heuristic: Most Improving (MI)
Constructive Heuristic: Max Utilization (MU)
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Constructive Heuristic: Flow Diversion (FD)
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Constructive Heuristic: Alternate path (AP)
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Constructive Heuristic: Alternate path around (APA)
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IEEE Expansion Benchmarks (Feng and Hill, 2003)
Comparison with Existing Approaches
Solutions to the DC model
RRMS = Romero et al 05, FH = Feng and Hill 03
IEEE Benchmarks (Feng and Hill, 2003)
RCH – includes grid operations
LB – Lower bound on best possible carbon emissions
UB – Upper bound on worst possible carbon emissions
RCH Base – solution that does not include grid operations
Expansion for 4 load scenarios
Expansion for 4 load scenarios
1WECC: Western Electricity Coordinating Council; primary planning organization for the 14state western United States
Collector Plan 1: Uprate 530 miles of existing corridors, construct 311 miles of new corridors
Collector Plan 2: Uprate 849 miles existing corridors
New Mexico renewable development study: 5, 10, and 20year transmission collection, Technical Report LAUR 106319