Diversity in sponges
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Diversity in Sponges. Jenna Behnke , Brigid Carr, Ben Lawhorn, Josh Hurley, Avonlea Gardner. Sponges are a diverse group of sometimes common types, with about 5000 species known across the world. Sponges are primarily marine, but around 150 species live in freshwater.

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Diversity in Sponges

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Diversity in sponges

Diversity in Sponges

Jenna Behnke , Brigid Carr, Ben Lawhorn, Josh Hurley, Avonlea Gardner


Diversity in sponges

Sponges are a diverse group of sometimes common types, with about 5000 species known across the world. Sponges are primarily marine, but around 150 species live in freshwater.


Three body plans of sponges

Three Body Plans of Sponges

Asconoid: sponges are shaped like a simple tube perforated by pores. The open internal part of the tube is called the spongocoel which contain collar cells. There is a single opening to the outside, the osculum.

Syconoid: tubular body with a single osculum. The synconoid body wall is thicker and the pores that penetrate it are longer, forming a system of simple canals.

Leuconoid: These are the largest and most complex sponges. These sponges are made up of masses of tissue penetrated by numerous canals. Canals lead to numerous small chambers lined with flagellated cells.


Calcarea

Calcarea

-Calcareous sponges.

-Skeleton is composed of spicules.

-Spicules are composed of calcium carbonate.

-Spicules are straight monoaxons (have three/four rays).

-Tend to be small (10cm or less in height).

-Tubular or vase shaped.

-May be asconoid, syconoid, or leuconoid.

-Many are drab in color but some are bright yellow, red, green, or lavender.

-Examples: Leucosolenia, Clathrina, and Sycon.

Source: Animal Diversity. Hickman et al. Chapter 6.


Demospogiae

Demospogiae

-80% of all sponges

-Includes freshwater sponges

-Includes most of the larger sponges

-can be bright or drab, encrusting, fan, vase, finger, or cushion shaped

-Uses leuconoid canale system (most complex)

-Skeletons can be siliceous spicules (not six rays), spongin fibers, or both

spongin fibers siliceous spicules


Hexactinellida

Hexactinellida

  • Distinguishing feature:

    • Six-Rayed siliceous spicules bound together

      • These look like snow flakes

  • Most are deep-sea forms

  • Most exhibit radial symmetry

  • Range from 7 - 10 cm to over a meter long

  • Has the largest continuous syncytial tissue known in metazoa

    • This tissue structure is so different from other sponges that some advocate for Hexactinellida to be placed in a separate subphylum


References

References

  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Porifera/

  • https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSIcnUNsholMFZe7NFyqHsHVrIXYFGSRX0GMsqHlVP4BhZk_0YT

  • https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRPVhhHO3-lMJfin_dPoJmeHnVBQO9ixZViBjtLPqNKMWCPUWIT

  • http://www.xerces.org/freshwater-sponges/

  • Animal Diversity. Hickman et al. Chapter 6.


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