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DNA, RNA, and the Flow of Genetic Information. Nucleic Acid Structure. What structural features do DNA and RNA share? Polymers of nucleotides Each nucleotide contains sugar, phosphate, nitrogen containing base Each nucleic acid contains 4 different nucleotides. Nucleic Acid Structure.

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Nucleic acid structure
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What structural features do DNA and RNA share?

    • Polymers of nucleotides

    • Each nucleotide contains sugar, phosphate, nitrogen containing base

    • Each nucleic acid contains 4 different nucleotides


Nucleic acid structure1
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What differentiates DNA from RNA?

    • Type of pentose sugar


Nucleic acid structure2
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • The nitrogen containing bases derived from purine and pyrimidine


Nucleic acid structure3
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What makes up the backbone of the nucleic acids?


Nucleic acid structure4
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What contributes to the stability of nucleic acids?

    • Negative charge of phosphodiester bridge

    • Repels nucleophiles

  • What is the difference between a nucleotide and a nucleoside?


Nucleic acid structure5
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What are the DNA nucleotides?

    • Deoxyadenosine-5-phosphate

    • Deoxyguanosine-5-phosphate

    • Deoxycytidine-5-phosphote

    • Deoxythymidine-5-phosphate


Nucleic acid structure6
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What are the RNA nucleotides?

    • Adenosine-5-phosphate

    • Guanosine-5-phosphate

    • Cytidine-5-phosphate

    • Uridine-5-phosphate


Nucleic acid structure7
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • How is the base bound to a sugar?

    • -glycosidic linkage


Nucleic acid structure8
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • Nucleic acids show polarity and are always written in the 5’ to 3’ direction


Nucleic acid structure9
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What doe this photograph represent?


Nucleic acid structure10
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • What are the major features of the double helix of DNA?

    • Two chains coiled around common axis running in opposite directions

    • Bases on inside, sugar-phosphate on outside

      • Bases are 3.4Å apart

      • Structure repeats ever 34Å

      • Diameter = 20Å


Nucleic acid structure11
Nucleic Acid Structure

  • Base pairing exists

    • A with T

    • C with G

  • How did the work of Chargaff support this concept?


Dna replication
DNA Replication

  • DNA is said to replicate semiconservatively. What does this mean?

  • How did Meselson and Stahl demonstrate this to be true?


DNA

  • How can the helical structure be disrupted?

    • Heating

  • What is Tm?

    • Melting temperature – half helical structure is destroyed

  • What is hyperchromism?

    • Single stranded DNA absorbs UV light more effectively than double stranded DNA




DNA

  • Why is the ability to separate the two chains of the double helix and reassociate them an important tool in the laboratory?

    • hybridization experiments


DNA

  • What is the difference between linear DNA and circular DNA and where are each of these forms found?

    • circular – ends of molecule are linked

    • linear – human DNA

    • circular – bacterial DNA


DNA

  • What is supercoiled DNA?


Nucleic acid structures
Nucleic Acid Structures

  • What are stem-loop structures?


Nucleic acid structures1
Nucleic Acid Structures

  • Other complex structures of single-stranded nucleic acids form


Nucleic acid structures2
Nucleic Acid Structures

  • In some complex structures can get hydrogen bonds formed between non-standard base pairs



Dna replication1
DNA Replication

  • What is DNA polymerase?

    • enzyme that catalyzes addition of DNA nucleotides to a growing chain of DNA

    • (DNA)n + dNTP (DNA)n+1 + PPi

  • What besides the enzyme is needed for DNA synthesis?

    • template

    • primer

    • activated nucleotides


Dna replication2
DNA Replication

  • What is the nature of the reaction catalyzed by DNA polymerase?


Dna replication3
DNA Replication

  • What else can some DNA polymerases do?

    • remove mismatched nucleotides


Rna viruses
RNA Viruses

  • What is the difference between and RNA virus and a retrovirus?

    • RNA viruses replicate via an RNA directed RNA polymerase

    • retroviruses use reverse transcriptase to replicate

  • Examples of each?



Gene expression
Gene Expression

  • How does RNA facilitate gene expression?

    • m-RNA – carries information from DNA

    • t-RNA – carries amino acids to site of protein synthesis

    • r-RNA – major component of ribosome where proteins are made

    • snRNA – (in eucaryotes only) – splices RNA


Transcription
Transcription

  • What does RNA polymerase do and how does it work?


Transcription1
Transcription

  • How does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase?

    • doesn’t require primer

    • doesn’t contain nuclease activity


Transcription2
Transcription

  • What are promoter sites and where are they located?

    • regions of DNA that bind RNA polymerase and determine where transcription begins


Transcription3
Transcription

  • How does RNA polymerase know when to stop transcribing?

    • terminator sequence

    • rho protein


Transcription4
Transcription

  • What happens to m-RNA in eukaryotes after transcription?


Transcription5
Transcription

  • How does t-RNA serve as an adaptor molecule?


Transcription6
Transcription

  • What do we know about the genetic code?

    • three nucleotides code for an amino acid

    • code doesn’t overlap

    • no punctuation

    • code is degenerate



Translation
Translation

  • What are the start and stop signals for translation?

    • stop codons – UAA, UCA,UAG


Genetic code1
Genetic Code

  • What evidence suggests that the genetic code is universal?

    • one can use machinery of one species to translate m-RNA of a different species

  • There are some variations in genetic code

    • mitocondrial DNA

    • DNA from cilliates


Genetic code2
Genetic Code

  • What are introns and exons?

    • introns – non-coding sequences of DNA

    • exons – coding sequences of DNA


Rna processing
RNA Processing

  • How are introns correctly removed before translation?

    • splicosomes – proteins and small RNA molecules


Exons and introns
Exons and Introns

  • Why are many genes in higher eukaryotes discontinuous?

    • exons code functional domains in proteins

    • can shuffle exons to produce new proteins

    • can generate related proteins by splicing m-RNA differently


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