Developmental timeline for engineering
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Developmental Timeline for Engineering. Engineering Your Future Chapter 1. Progress of engineering is a continuum. History allows for understanding where we have been, where we are, and where we are going History is about people and accomplishments

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Developmental timeline for engineering

Developmental Timeline for Engineering

Engineering Your Future

Chapter1


Progress of engineering is a continuum

Progress of engineering is a continuum

  • History allows for understanding where we have been, where we are, and where we are going

  • History is about people and accomplishments

  • Study of history helps us create new futures and understand what good qualities from the past are worth repeating and continuing


Definition of engineering

Definition of Engineering

“The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.”

-ABET

http://www.abet.org


Prehistoric culture

Prehistoric Culture

  • Designed and built needed items by trial and error, using intuition

  • Lack of communication and transportation prevented sharing of knowledge among civilizations

  • Knowledgeable about surroundings, craftsmanship was marvelous in effectiveness, integrity and intricacy, and information was passed down from generations very seriously


Prehistoric culture cont

Prehistoric Culture cont.

Cave painting in Matobo Hills, Zimbabwe

  • Physical limitations of prehistoric man:

    • No known written language

    • Oral language limited

    • No significant means of transportation

    • No concept of formal education

    • No specialized methodology for discovery

    • Survived by gathering food and hunting with primitive weapons

    • Material aspects of life came about slowly

http://www.netsnake.com/sigrid/gallery/gallery1.html


The speed of history

The Speed of History

Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France

  • Innovations introduced far more rapidly now than in the past 6000 years

  • Years to accomplish tasks finished in a very short amount of time

    • Up to 200 years to build one church!

  • Proper connection to God, truth, justice, fate, reality, life, and ancestry was goal of early science in many cultures

http://groody.free.fr/divers/photos/portfolio/files/notre-dame.jpg


Engineering s beginnings

Engineering’s Beginnings

  • Foundations of engineering were laid with our ancestors’ efforts to survive and improve quality of life.

  • Every person was part of a community, not separate of it.

  • To an extent, everyone was an engineer

  • Modern aborigines and the Amish live like their ancestors, while taking advantage of modern technologies (tools, motors, medicine) but still preserving their culture.

www.harmony.mn.us/ phototour.html


Egypt and mesopotamia

Egypt and Mesopotamia

  • Between 4000 and 2000 B.C., focal points for engineering

  • Stone tools, copper and bronze axes, plow, wheel, sailing boat, and methods of writing helped improved the way of life

Mesopotamia’s First System of Writing

http://www.openschool.bc.ca/courses/ss7/mesopotamia/lesson7.html


Pyramid design and construction

Pyramid Design and Construction

  • 2700 - 500 B.C.

  • Engineering tactics:

    • Stones properly transported

    • Stones effectively lifted into place

    • Everything fit

    • Tombs secure against robbery

  • Stepped Pyramid at Sakkara

    • About 2700 B.C.

    • Chief Engineer Imhotep to King Zoser

Stepped Pyramid in Sakkara

www.biblicalisraeltours.com/ photos99/99pics.htm


The great pyramid of khufu

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

  • Constructed about 200 years after the Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara

  • Largest masonry structure ever built

  • Base = 756 ft. each side

  • 480 ft. tall

  • Over 2.3 million limestone blocks used

    • Weigh over 58 million tons

  • Casing blocks of fine limestone were attached to all four sides

    • Removed for other uses throughout the years

http://puffin.creighton.edu/museums/cohagan/giza_great.htm


Outline of engineering history

Outline of Engineering History

  • Modern age, inventions appear to narrow, with much focus on computers.

  • The following slides contain significant engineering innovations throughout history.

Original McMicken Hall used for Engineering at the University of Cincinnati circa 1892

http://www.uc.edu/news/enghist.htm


1200 b c a d 1

1200 B.C. - A.D. 1

  • Quality of wrought iron is improved

  • Swords are mass produced

  • Siege towers perfected

  • Greeks develop manufacturing

  • Archimedes introduces mathematics in Greece

  • Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads, and aqueducts in Rome

Roman Aqueduct

http://lpn.rotospeed.net/tertium_millennium.htm?rome_10


A d 1 1000

A.D. 1 - 1000

  • Chinese further develop the study of mathematics

  • Gunpowder is perfected

  • Cotton and silk are manufactured

http://www.maths.adelaide.edu.au/people/pscott/history/mark/mhains.html


1000 1400

1000 - 1400

  • Growth in the silk and glass industry

  • Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1240), medieval mathematician, writes the first text on algebra

The Fibonacci Quilt

http://www.durham.edu.on.ca/oame/puzzles/fibonacci.htm


1400 1700

1400 - 1700

  • Federigo Giambelli constructs the first time bomb

  • First water closet invented in England

  • Christian Huygens begins work on a pendulum-driven clock

  • Charles II charters the Royal Society

  • Isaac Newton constructs a reflecting telescope

  • Leibniz makes a calculating machine to multiply and divide

How a Reflecting Telescope Works

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/reflecting_telescope.html


1700 1800

1700 - 1800

Eddystone Lighthouse

  • Industrial Revolution begins

  • Leyden jar stores a large charge of electricity

  • James Watt makes the first rotary engine

  • Ecole des Ponts et Chausses, first civil engineering school established by Louis XV

  • Society of Engineers formed in London

  • David Bushnell designs first human-carrying submarine

  • John Smeaton completes construction of Eddystone lighthouse

http://www.btinternet.com/~k.trethewey/images/eddy53.gif


1800 1825

1800 - 1825

First Miner’s Safety Lamp

  • Automation first used in France

  • First railroad locomotive unveiled

  • Chemical symbols as used today are developed

  • Safety lamp for protecting miners is first used

  • Simple wire telegraph is developed

  • Photography is born

  • Electromagnetism is studied

  • Thermocouple is invented

  • Aluminum is prepared

http://www.pastperfect.org.uk/sites/woodhorn/archive/1433.html


1825 1875

1825 - 1875

Postcard of First Oil Well

  • Rubber is vulcanized by Robert Goodyear in U.S.

  • Rotary printing press comes into service

  • Reinforced concrete is used

  • Sewing machine invented

  • Henry Bessemer originates process to mass-produce steel cheaply

  • First oil well drilled near Titusville, PA

  • Typewriter is perfected

  • Challenge Expedition (1871 - 1876) forms basis for future oceanographic study

http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/pa/crawford/postcards/ppcs-crawford.html


1875 1900

1875 - 1900

  • Alexander Graham Bell Patents first telephone

  • Thomas Edison invents phonograph and incandescent light bulb

  • Gasoline engine invented by Gottlieb Daimler

  • Karl Benz introduces automobile

  • Steam turbine appears

Karl Benz’s Automobile

http://autostadt.hornecker-online.de/benz_patent-motorwagen.html


1900 1925

1900 - 1925

  • Wright brothers complete first sustained flight

  • Detroit becomes center of auto industry

  • Stainless steel introduced in Germany

  • Diesel engine tractors produced by Ford

  • First commercial airplane service between London and Paris commences

  • Diesel locomotives appear

Ford’s First “Automobile Plow”

http://www.ssbtractor.com/features/Ford_tractors.html


1925 1950

1925 - 1950

  • Modern sound recordings introduced

  • John Logie Baird invents a high-speed mechanical scanning system

    • Leads to development of television

  • Volkswagen Beetle goes into production

  • First nuclear bombs are used

  • Transistor is invented

World War II Kommandeurwagen

http://money.cnn.com/2003/07/10/pf/autos/bc.autos.volkswagen.beetle/


1950 1975

1950 - 1975

  • Computers first enter the commercial market

    • In common use by 1960

  • Sputnik 1 (USSR), first artificial satellite, goes into space

  • Explorer I (first U.S.) follows

  • LASER is introduced

  • Manned space flight begins

  • First communication satellite, Telstar, goes into orbit

  • Integrated circuits introduced

  • First manned moon landing occurs

Sputnik 1

Explorer I

http://www.wiw.pl/astronomia/0401-badania.asp

http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/explorer/explorer.html


1975 1990

1975 - 1990

  • Supersonic transport from U.S. to Europe begins

  • Cosmonauts orbit the Earth for a record 180 days

  • Columbia space shuttle is launched and reused for space travel

  • First artificial heart is implanted

First Artificial Heart Implant

http://library.thinkquest.org/5171/hhis.html


1990 today

1990 - Today

  • Hubble Space Telescope is carried into orbit (1990) in space shuttle Discovery

  • Internet Society is chartered

    • 1 million host computers connected in a network

  • Computer processor speeds dramatically improve

  • Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) between England and France is completed

  • MP3 audio format traded widely through computer servers

Hubble Space Telescope

http://www.astr.ua.edu/keel/telescopes/hst.html


1990 today cont

1990 - Today cont.

Petronas Towers: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • World’s newest tallest building opens in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • Global Positioning Satellite technology is declassified

    • Hundreds of safety, weather, and consumer applications available

  • High Definition Television signals/products become available

  • Genetic code of a human chromosome is mapped

  • Robots walk on Mars

http://www.asienreise.com/bal/malaysia/kuala_lumpur.htm


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