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# Noggin Knockers PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Noggin Knockers. The Atom. Periodic Table. Chemical Formulas. Chemical Reactions. Real World. Bonding. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 200. 200. 200. 200. 300. 300. 300. 300. 300. 400. 400. 400. 400. 400. 500. 500. 500. Final Jeopardy. The Atom for 100.

Noggin Knockers

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The

Atom

Periodic

Table

Chemical

Formulas

Chemical

Reactions

Real World

Bonding

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Final Jeopardy

### The Atom for 100

A substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance is called a(n) _______________. The smallest particle of this substance is called a(n) ____________.

Element

Smallest particle = atom

### The Atom for 200

What is the greatest number of VALENCE electrons an atom can have?

8 valence electrons

### The Atom for 300

What’s the difference between a compound and a mixture?

Compound- 2 or more different atoms bonded together.

Mixture- several different substances in a container that are NOT bonded together.

### The Atom for 400

Where are the protons, neutrons, and electrons located within an atom?

Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus.

Electrons are in a cloudlike region outside of the nucleus.

### The Atom for 500

Compare and contrast protons, neutrons, and electrons in terms of their charge.

proton: +1 charge

neutron: 0 charge

electrons: -1 charge

### The Periodic Table for 100

Each family or group in the periodic table contains elements with similar properties due to the number of _______________.

valence electrons

### The Periodic Table for 200

When atoms of elements from Group 2 form ions, they tend to have what charge and WHY?

+2 charge because they tend to lose 2 valence electrons so they have a filled outer electron shell (with 8 valence electrons)

### The Periodic Table for 300

If atoms of group 6A (or 16) gain 2 electrons, then how many valence electrons do they have and what charge do they have?

8 valence electrons with a –2 charge.

### The Periodic Table DAILY DOUBLE!!!

Determine the number of protons and neutrons of the most common isotope of lithium (atomic number = 3, average atomic mass = 6.9 amu).

3 protons and 4 neutrons

### The Periodic Table for 500

The atomic masses listed on the periodic table are usually not whole numbers. For example potassium’s atomic mass is 39.100 amu. Explain why this is the case.

The atomic masses on the periodic table are the average masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.

### Bonding for 100

The atomic particles involved in the bonding between atoms are the ____________.

Valence electrons

### Bonding for 200

What is a single bond?

1 pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms.

### Bonding for 300

Identify the following compounds as an ionic or molecular compound based upon the information given: sodium chloride (NaCl)- melting point is about 800oC, conducts electricity in water; water- boils at 100oC.

Sodium chloride is an ionic compound- it contains a (+) and (-) ion plus it has a high melting point.

Water is a molecular compound with its lower boiling point. Molecular compounds have weaker covalent bonds.

### Bonding for 400

What’s the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond? Be sure to give the overall charge of an ionic compound in your answer!

In an ionic bond, a transfer of electrons occur to form oppositely charged ions that are attracted to each other and form an ionic compound with a NEUTRAL CHARGE.

In a covalent bond, the electrons are shared between the atoms, so each atom has 8 valence electrons.

### Bonding for 500

Explain why carbon monoxide (CO) is a polar molecule while carbon dioxide (CO2) is not.

The electrons are pulled more strongly by the oxygen atoms in both molecules; however, the oxygen atoms are pulling the electrons in opposite directions in CO2, so the forces cancel out and the overall molecule is non-polar.

### Chemical Formulas for 100

Ammonium chloride is represented as NH4Cl, which is an example of a chemical ______________. This chemical is often used in instant cold packs.

Formula

### Chemical Formulas for 200

In a chemical formula the positive ion is written ____________ (last, first, or in the middle).

FIRST

### Chemical Formulas for 300

Ammonia is an important substance for cleaning and making other substances used in fertilizers and cold packs. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3. What does the “3” tell you about the compound?

There are 3 hydrogen atoms for every nitrogen atom.

### Chemical Formulas for 400

What are the names of the following compounds: Na2O, Ba(NO3)2, and (NH4)2SO4?

Sodium oxide: Na2O

Barium nitrate: Ba(NO3)2

Ammonium sulfate: (NH4)2SO4

### Chemical Formulas DAILY DOUBLE!!!

Write the chemical formulas for barium chloride and aluminum sulfate.

Barium chloride: BaCl2

Aluminum sulfate: Al2(SO4)3

### Chemical Reactions for 100

When chemical bonds break and new bonds form a chemical _______ takes place.

A chemical reaction

### Chemical Reactions for 200

In a chemical equation, what is written on the left side of the arrow and what is written on the right side? Which one is present at the end of the reaction?

Reactants (left), products (right)

Products- present after the reaction

### Chemical Reactions for 300

What is the principle of the conservation of mass?

Mass is not created or destroyed.

### Chemical Reactions for 400

How many acetylene (C2H2) molecules and oxygen gas (O2) molecules need to be present for the following reaction (think ratios):

2C2H2 + 5O2 2H2O + 4CO2? This reaction produces a fair amount of heat, so it is an ________________ change.

2 (C2H2) to 5 (O2); exothermic

### Chemical Reactions for 500

Identify the type of reaction for each one below and balance the first chemical equation:

C12H22O11 C + H2O

Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2

4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3

CaCl2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaCl

C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O (decomposition)

Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 (single replacement)

4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3 (synthesis)

CaCl2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaCl (double replacement)

### Real World for 100

As temperature ___________, the rate of a chemical reaction usually increases (since molecules are moving faster).

Increases

### Real World for 200

In sawmills, fine sawdust particles float through the air and fires can start easily. Explain why fires can start so easily in a place like a sawmill. Also, would there be a greater risk if there are more dust particles in the air (greater concentration)?

All of the sawdust is spread out (greater surface area), so the particles can more easily catch on fire due to more oxygen gas being in contact with them. Yes, a greater concentration speeds up the combustion reaction.

### Real World for 300

Salt is mostly sodium chloride, an ionic compound. Will it conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water? Explain why or why not.

Yes, the ions in that ionic compound break apart so there are positive ions and negative ions moving around in the water, so an electric current can occur.

### Real World for 400

What is the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas as well as between the temperature and volume of a gas?

As pressure increases the volume of a gas decreases (or vice-versa).

As temperature of gas increases, then the volume increases.

### Real World for 500

Describe solids, liquids, and gases in terms of their shape, volume, and movement of their particles.

Solids- def. shape and volume, particle sjust vibrate back and forth

Liquids- no def. shape, def. volume, particles roll about freely

Gases- no def. shape or volume, particles move randomly in all directions

### Chemical Reactions

Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of magnesium nitrate with potassium carbonate to produce magnesium carbonate and potassium nitrate.

Mg(NO3)2 +K2CO3 MgCO3 + 2KNO3