第四篇 組 織
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第四篇 組 織. 管理團隊 Groups and Teams. 12. 各節重點. 12.1 瞭解群體發展的各個階段. 12.2 解釋決定群體績效和滿意度的要素. 12.3 定義何謂團隊與影響團隊績效的最佳實務. 12.4 描述現今管理團隊的議題. 群體及群體發展 Group and Group Development. 12.1. 群體行為並非只是所有個人行為的加總,因為個人在群體中的行為和他們獨自一人時的表現大不相同。.

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第四篇 組 織

管理團隊

Groups and Teams

12

各節重點

12.1 瞭解群體發展的各個階段

12.2 解釋決定群體績效和滿意度的要素

12.3 定義何謂團隊與影響團隊績效的最佳實務

12.4 描述現今管理團隊的議題


群體及群體發展

Group and Group Development

12.1

  • 群體行為並非只是所有個人行為的加總,因為個人在群體中的行為和他們獨自一人時的表現大不相同。

  • 群體是指兩個或兩個以上的人互動且相互依賴,以共同達成特定的目標。群體可能是正式或非正式的。正式群體是由組織所設立,有特定指派的任務及工作。非正式群體則為社交性質,是在工作環境中,因社交之需要而自然形成之團體。

Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals.

  • Formal groups - Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks

  • Informal groups - Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members



群體發展階段 Stage of Group Development

  • 群體發展是一種動態的過程,多數群體都處於持續改變的狀態。雖然群體可能永遠無法達到穩定的狀態,但其發展都會經過一個五階段的標準模式。這五個階段分別為:形成期、風暴期、規範期、績效期和解散期。

    Research shows that group develop through five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.


  • 形成期 - 涵蓋了兩個方面:(1)人們加入此一群體可能是基於正式的工作安排或非正式的利益需求;(2)定義群體目標、結構及領導。

  • Forming stage - the first stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.

  • 風暴期 – 群體內相互衝突的階段。 意見相左 / 控制權掌握

  • Storming stage - the second stage of group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.

  • 規範期 – 群體會發展出緊密的關係與凝聚力。 組織制度化

  • Norming stage - the third stage of group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.


  • 績效期 – 群體的力量從了解彼此轉移到執行組織的工作。

  • Performing stage - the fourth stage of group development when the group is fully functional and works on group task.

  • 解散期 – 組織即將面臨解散,成員間的反應會有很大差異,有人因成就感到滿足,有人將因失去群體的友誼而沮喪。

  • Adjourning - the final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance. ex: 慶功宴 / 惜別會


12.2

工作群體績效與滿意度

Group Performance/Satisfaction

  • 為什麼有些群體會比其他群體還要成功?為什麼有些群體能夠達到更高的績效和員工滿意度,而有些卻無法做到?這個問題的答案十分複雜,但卻和以下的變數息息相關。

    Why are some groups more successful than others? Why do some groups achieve high levels of performance and high levels of member satisfaction and others do not?


外部條件的影響

External Conditions Imposed on the Group

  • 工作群體乃是較大系統中的子系統。工作群體絕非單獨存在的,而是更大組織裡的一環,故而工作群體會受到其外部 ( 更大系統 ) 的情況所影響。如組織整體策略、職權結構、正式規章、組織資源、人才選用標準、績效管理、組織文化及群體工作空間之配置等。

    Work groups affected by the external conditions imposed on it, such as the organization’s strategy, authority relationships, formal rules and regulations, availability of resources, employee selection criteria, the performance management system and culture, and the general physical layout of the group’s work space.


群體成員的資源 Group Member Resources

  • 一個群體所能表現的績效水準有一大部分是取決於成員能為群體帶來的資源,這些可能包括成員的智識、能力和技術,以及成員的人格特質。群體的部分績效可以從成員的智能以及成員所具備的工作相關技能水準來預知。群體績效並不光是個別成員能力的加總,然而成員所具備的能力,將會成為群體整體績效表現的重要變數。

    A group’s performance potential depends to a large extent on the resources each individual brings to the group. These resources include knowledge, abilities, skills, and the personality traits, and they determine what members can do and how effectively they will perform in a group.


群體結構 Group Structure

  • 工作群體會有一個結構來塑造成員的行為,並可用來解釋、預測並影響個體在群體裡的行為及群體績效。

    Work groups have an internal structure that shapes members’ behavior and influences group performance.

角色- 指一個社會單位中,對某一位置的人所期望的行為模式。

Role - behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.自我與他人期待 /角色衝突

規範- 每個群體都有其獨特的規範,但多數的組織還是有一些共同的規範,這些規範大多偏重於努力與績效、衣著及忠誠度等,其中關於努力程度與績效可說是其中最常見的規範。

Norms - standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members.


從眾 – 基於人們都希望融入其所屬的群體中,因此他們很容易受到順從群體的壓力所影響。

Conformity – because individuals want to accepted by groups to which they belong, they are susceptible to pressures to confirm.

群體迷思 - 群體成員為了取得外界和諧和一致贊同的印象,而壓抑不同或不受歡迎的觀點。

Groupthink - when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others.

地位– 群體中具有的聲望、職位或階級。

Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. 激勵因子 / 非正式特性之地位 / 可被正式賦予


群體大小 – 小群體通常會比大群體更快完成工作,但就解決問題而言, 大群體通常表現較佳。

Group Size – Research indicates that small groups are faster at completing tasks than larger ones. However, for groups engaged in problem solving, large groups consistently get better results than smaller ones.

社會賦閒 – 個人在與群體共同工作時,比獨立作業時付出較少的努力。

Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.

群體凝聚力 – 成員受群體吸引而共享群體目標的程序。

Group cohesiveness - the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals.


群體程序 Group Processes

  • 群體行為模式的另一構成要素是工作群體內的程序,包括成員彼此交換資訊的溝通方式、群體決策程序、衝突的互動等。

    The factor that determines group performance and satisfaction concerns the processes that go on within a work group such as communication, decision making, conflict management, and the like.綜效 or 衝突?

群體決策 Group Decision Making

  • 有許多組織決策是由群體共同決定的,且都仰賴委員會、任務小組、評議會、研究團隊或是其他類似的單位來執行。

    It’s a rare organization that doesn’t use committees, task forces, review panels, study teams, or other similar groups to make decisions.


群體決策的優點有哪些呢 Advantage of Group Decision?

1. 提供更完整的資訊

Generate more complete information and knowledge

2. 提供更多的選擇方案

Generate more diverse alternatives

3. 增加方案被接受的程序

Increase acceptance of a solution

4. 增加合法性

Increase legitimacy


群體決策有以下幾個缺點 Disadvantages of Group Decision:

1. 費時

always take more time to reach a solution.

2. 少數壟斷

dominant and vocal minority can heavily influence the final decision

3. 從眾的壓力

Groupthink can undermine critical thinking in the group and harm the quality of the final decision.

4. 責任不清

In a group, members share responsibility, but the responsibility of any single member is ambiguous



衝突管理 Conflict Management

  • 群體在執行指派的任務時,無可避免會出現爭論或衝突的情形。這裡所提到的衝突,指的是雙方在意見或做法上產生「認知」的差異,因而導致某種程度的干擾或對立。

  • Conflict - perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition.

  • 學界對衝突的看法可分成三種不同觀點。

  • Three different views have evolved regarding conflict

  • 第一種觀點主張應避免衝突,因為這顯示群體間存在著問題,我們稱此為衝突的傳統觀點。

  • Traditional view of conflict - the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided.


  • 第二種是衝突的人際關係觀點,認為衝突是很自然的,任何群體都無法避免,而且衝突不一定是負面的,團隊的績效可能因衝突的存在反而有正面的幫助。

  • Human relations view of conflict - the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any groupand need not be negative, but potential to be a positive force in contributing to a group’s performance.

  • 第三個是晚近提出的看法,認為衝突在群體中不僅可能是一種正面力量,假使衝突適度的存在,對群體表現的良窳是有絕對的必要性,此種觀點稱為衝突的互動觀點。

  • Interactionist view of conflict - the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively.


  • 會破壞及妨礙群體達成目標的衝突,則稱之為非功能性衝突。

  • Dysfunctional conflicts - conflicts that prevent a group from achieving its goals.

  • 衝突的三種類型,包括:任務衝突、關係衝突與程序衝突。任務衝突是與工作內容及目標有關;關係衝突指的是人與人之間的關係;程序衝突則與工作如何完成有關。

  • Task conflict - conflicts over content and goals of the work.

  • Relationship conflict - conflict based on interpersonal relationships. 非功能性衝突

  • Process conflict - conflict over how work gets done.


Exhibit 12-7: Conflict and互動觀點並不主張所有衝突都是有益的,有些衝突確實可以支持群體目標並改善群體績效,此乃具建設性的Group Performance


Exhibit 12-8: Conflict-Management Techniques


群體當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作任務 Group Task

  • 群體程序對群體績效及成員滿意度的影響,取決於群體目前正在進行的任務;更明確地說,也就是任務的「複雜性」和「相依程度」會影響群體的效能。

  • The impact that group processes have on group performance and member satisfaction is modified by the task the group is doing. More specifically, it’s the complexity and interdependence of tasks that influence a group’s effectiveness.


  • 簡單當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作任務是例行且標準化的,而複雜任務則屬於無先例可循或非例行性的,工作若相當簡單,成員就無須費心討論不同的替代方案,只要按照標準程序即可。

  • Simple tasks are routine and standardized. Complex tasks tend to be novel or nonroutine. Group members don’t need to discuss such alternatives for a simple task, but can rely on standard operating procedures.

  • 如成員任務間相依程序高,彼此間就需要有緊密互動,因此當任務複雜且相互依存時,有效溝通與衝突控制便與群體績效息息相關。

  • Simple tasks are routine and standardized. Complex tasks tend to be novel or nonroutine. Group members don’t need to discuss such alternatives for a simple task, but can rely on standard operating procedures.


12.3當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作

將群體轉化為效能團隊

Turning Groups into Effective Teams

  • 管理者發現,相對傳統的部門編製或是其他永久性工作群組而言,工作團隊較具彈性,也較能回應變化中的事件。工作團隊具備快速召集、佈署、重新聚焦以及解散的能力。

  • Teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than they are traditional departments or other permanent work groups. Teams have the ability to quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband.

工作團隊的定義 What Is a Work Team?

  • 所謂工作團隊是由負責達成某項目標,且彼此相互依賴的個人所組成之正式群體。

    Work teams - groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.


Exhibit 12-9: Groups Versus Teams當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作


工作團隊的當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作類型 Types of Work Teams

問題解決團隊- 從通一部門或功能性單位召集員工成立小組,共同改善某項工作或解決特定問題。

Problem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.

2. 自我管理團隊 – 由員工所組成之正式團隊,沒有監督者,成員自行負責完成整個或部份的工作流程。

Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.


3. 當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作跨功能團隊 – 組合不同領域的專家來一起完成不同的任務。

Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties.

4. 虛擬團隊 – 運用電腦科技將分散在各地的成員連結,以達成共同的目標。

Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.


創造有效當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作團隊 Creating Effective Work Teams

Exhibit 12-10: Characteristics of Effective Teams


12.4當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作

現今管理團隊會遭遇的挑戰

Current Challenges in Managing Teams

  • 現今組織有兩個明顯的特徵:全球化的浪潮,加上愈來愈多的工作靠著團隊而非個人完成。

  • Two characteristics of today’s organizations are obvious : They’re global and work is increasingly done by team.

Exhibit 12-11: Global Teams


管理全球化團隊當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作

  • 由於單一成員的特定文化特質,要清楚瞭解全球化團隊成員績效與所擁有資源間的關係並不容易。

  • In global organization, understanding the relationship between group performance and group member resource is more challenging because of the unique cultural characteristics represented by members of a global team.

  • 在幾個組織構面上可以發現全球化團隊的特點。

  • Some of the structural areas where we see differences in managing global teams.

  • 從眾性Conformity低

  • 地位的認知 Status因文化差異而異 - 家庭背景 vs 工作成就

  • 社會賦閒 Social Loafing台、美不同

  • 凝聚力 Cohesiveness低


  • 全球化團隊如何完成工作當群體出現高度衝突時,管理者可透過五種技巧來降低衝突:迴避、遷就、強制、妥協與合作,是有爭議的,尤其是溝通這件事。

  • The processes that global teams use to do their work can be particularly challenging for managers. For one thing, communication issues often arise because not all team members may be fluent in the team’s working language.

  • 社群網路 – 組織成員間非正式的溝通型態,它可以增進或減損團隊的工作效益。

    Social Network- The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups.

  • The Importance of Social Networks

    • Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness.

    • Relationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.


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