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CHP400: Community Health Program - lI. gy. What is Research ?. gy. Research Methodology. Mohamed M. B. Alnoor. Research Methodology. What is Research ?. gy. Content. Definition of Research. Steps in conducting Research. gy. Research Objectives. Hypotheses. Title of the study.

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Research Methodology

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Research methodology

CHP400:

Community Health Program - lI

gy

What is

Research ?

gy

Research

Methodology

Mohamed M. B. Alnoor


What is research

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Content

  • Definition of Research

  • Steps in conducting Research

gy

  • Research Objectives

  • Hypotheses

  • Title of the study

  • Take home message


What is research1

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

The Pontiac Story !

gy


What is research2

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Re /

Research

search

Research is the

  • systematic collection

  • analysis and

  • interpretation of data

  • to answer a certain question or solve a problem.

gy


What is research3

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Research

  • demands clear statement of the problem

  • requires a plan

  • builds on existing data

  • should answer the original research question

gy


What is research4

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

Steps in conducting Research

gy

Selection / statement

of Research Problem

Literature review

2

1

3

Formulation of Objectives

Report Writing and Presentation

8

gy

S t u d y P r o t o c o l

Study Methodology

4

gy

7

Data Analysis

5

Proposal submission and approval

Field Work

6


What is research5

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Identifying Problems for Research

Common Research Questions

  • Description of Health Problem

    • Magnitude of a health problem/disease

    • Distribution of the health problem in person, place and time

    • Identification of risk factors and causes

gy


What is research6

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Identifying Problems for Research

Common Research Questions

  • Effect of an intervention: Drug, vaccine, risk factor cessation, health education

  • Evaluation of on-going interventions: Coverage of Target Groups, Quality, Cost, Effect/Impact

gy


What is research7

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Research Objectives

FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

What are study objectives?

The objectives of a research project summarize what is to be achieved by the study.

gy

The objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem.

eg.

the objective should be

gy

if the problem is

gy

low utilization of

child welfare clinics

to identify the reasons

for this low utilization.

gy


What is research8

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Research Objectives

Why should research objectives be developed?

Formulation of objectives will help to:

  • Focus the study (narrowing it down

    to essentials);

  • Avoid collection of data that are not

    strictly necessary for understanding

    and solving the problem; and

gy


What is research9

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Research Objectives

How should you state your objectives?

Take care that the objectives of your study:

  • Use action verbs that are specific enough to be evaluated.

    eg.: to determine, to compare, to verify, to calculate, to describe, and to establish.

  • Avoid the use of vague non-action verbs, such as: to appreciate, to understand, or to study.

gy


What is research10

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Research Objectives

Characteristics of Good Objectives

SMART

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Achievable

  • Realistic/Relevant

  • Time-Bound

gy


What is research11

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Hypotheses:

A HYPOTHESIS is a prediction of a relationship between one or more factors and the problem under study, which can be tested.

gy


What is research12

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Hypotheses:

  • Based on your experience with the study problem, it might be possible to develop explanations (formulate hypotheses) for the problem in addition to the study objectives.

gy


What is research13

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Hypotheses:

Eg. low utilization of child welfare clinics

It would be possible to formulate and test the following hypotheses:

gy

1. Utilization of child welfare clinics is lowest in the rainy season due to the high workload of mothers during that period.

2. Utilization of child welfare clinics is lowest in those clinics in which staff are poorly motivated to provide preventive services.


What is research14

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

Title of the study

gy

  • The title should be in line with your general objective.

  • Make sure that it is specific enough to tell the reader what your study is about.

gy

NOT: “A study of utilization of child welfare clinics”

BUT: “A study of the reasons for low utilization of child welfare clinics in District X”


What is research15

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Take home message

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

gy

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

Research Objectives


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